SOCIALIST VENEZUELA COLLAPSING

February 14, 2019

During a February 12, 2019, hearing of the House Committee of Foreign Affairs U.S. special representative for Venezuela, Elliot Abrams, was attacked by Rep. Omar, who has been under fire for anti-Semitic remarks. Taking this background into account it was not surprising that Democrat Omar behaved the way she did

In his testimony Abrams in the opening statement explained that the situation in Venezuela would only become worse if the illegitimate Maduro regime was allowed to remain:

Venezuela has become the most violent country in the world. In large part this is due to poverty and desperation, directly caused by the former Maduro regime’s disastrous mismanagement of the economy and policy of social divisiveness. It is also due to Maduro’s neighborhood gangs— or “colectivos”—who prey on the poor through extortion, kidnapping, and murder, Abrams said.

Hyperinflation, thanks to Maduro’s economic policies, mismanagement, and regime corruption, has spiraled out of control. Within the last month it grew by 220 percent. In total, by the end of 2019, it could reach 10 million percent.

One of the most significant consequences of Maduro’s disastrous economy is food insecurity. Only 30 percent of the protein required in the regular diet of the Venezuelan population is available. Scarcity and high prices have reached critical levels for food processors and grocery markets.

The U.S. Government is doing everything within its power to support that effort. We do this because the restoration of peace, democracy, and prosperity would reunite Venezuela with the democratic community of the hemisphere. It would also refute the false promise of authoritarianism championed by a small number of dysfunctional states, most notably Cuba which has provided direct support for Maduro’s repressive tactics including the recent deployment of its most feared units, the Black Wasps.

Maduro and his cronies are conspiring to prevent…life-saving U.S. assistance from reaching the Venezuelan people….we have effectively levied individual and sectoral sanctions on the former Maduro regime. And they are making a difference.

We have exponentially increased the cost of doing business for the regime in the gold sector, the financial sector, and now the oil sector—the combination of which has created enormous pressure on Maduro and his band of thieves.

We have frozen the bank accounts of the regime’s most notorious gang leaders and revoked their visas and those of their immediately family members who benefited from their corruption and complicity. They and their families are no longer welcome in the United States.…We believe the current political and economic environment is unsustainable and that he will not be able to weather it much longer….. We recognize global diplomacy is required to ensure a peaceful and inclusive transition. This is not an effort by the United States alone but an effort by what is now near 50 democracies in this hemisphere and around the world.

We are witnessing a historic shift in our hemisphere toward democratic solidarity…Over the next weeks and months, the international community will take full advantage of the momentum built over the last few weeks.

We will continue our pressure against Maduro and his inner circle by a variety of means. But we will also provide off-ramps to those who will do what is right for the Venezuelan people.

We will support Venezuela’s interim president, the new government, and its aspirations to create a new Venezuela – full of hope, promise, and potential – and we will work together toward a democratic transition.

We will continue pressing our humanitarian assistance delivery with the help of our regional partners and the international community.

And we will expose and speak out against Maduro and his enablers’ cruelty and violence, recognizing the Venezuelan voices that have witnessed it firsthand.

In conclusion, Abrams said that Nicolas Maduro and his cronies are reeling from the force of Venezuela’s own people, who are determined to live in freedom and dignity. We are hopeful and confident the Venezuelan people will succeed in their quest for liberty. And when they do achieve this monumental goal, it will show despots and dictators not only in our hemisphere, but in the rest of the world, that the democratic will of the people will always outlive and outshine those who try to suppress it.

Comment: It was on January 23 Maduro was removed from power by the democratically elected National Assembly. It choose as president Juan Guaido. The Venezuelan people will continue the fight for freedom from corruption and socialist tyranny supported by a large number of democratic countries around the world including the United States.Hundreds of thousands of Venezuelans have taken to the streets in support of President Guaido. The new president has offered amnesty to officers and soldiers who defect to his side and U.S. The only support for the Maduro regime comes from state capitalist China, Communist Cuba, theocratic Iran, and authocratic Russia. On can only hope that the Venezuelan military objects to the intervention by foreign security forces and declare loyalty to the new democratic president. Victory for the Venezuelan people would be a victory for human freedom everywhere.

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CONTRA THE KANTIAN WORLD VISION AND GLOBALISM

February 8, 2019

Yoram Hazony’s book “The Virtues of Nationalism” (2018) is a welcome highly elegant defense of the Westphalian order of independent states. Hazony is critical of the concept of Enlightenment German philosopher Immanuel Kant. He in 1795 presented a manifesto (”Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch”) which was an attack on the national state. Self-determination was, in the eyes of Kant, ”a barbarism”. In his view Europe should form an international state which would grow to embrace all the people of the earth. It was the only dictate of reason. All who opposed this ideal were barbarians seeking to prevent humanity’s move toward the reign of reason.

The globalist attacks on nationalism is a new phenomenon. In the 19th century the struggle of European peoples to free themselves from their imperial masters was regarded as a fight for liberation. Later most Westerners supported the East European people’s struggle to free themselves from the subjugation by the Soviets. Both the Nazis and the Soviet communists tried to put an end to national independence and self-determination of peoples.

This idea that universal order is an alternative to nationalism has resulted in some o the worst crimes in world history. Kant’s vision would result in the creation of a large administrative global government. Central technocrats would regulate every aspect of human life. Modern globalist leftists in other words seek a single, worldwide empire with universal laws imposed on nations. If necessary this order would require the use of force against nations.

In order to establish this dangerous vision all independent and democratic states that resist globalism are described as illiberal and autocratic standing in the way of progressive historical development. Conservatives have, so the globalists, revealed themselves as enemies of internationalist ideology. In reality they stand up to, and always have done so, large-scale forced attempts of social engineering. One attempt at this in modern history was the Marxist-Leninists seeking to create at world state of Soviet socialist republics.

The Soviets used force to create a world federal empire. The globalists of today claim that their federal project would be a benevolent. There can however be no such thing. All federalist projects have failed from the French Revolution onwards. Napoleon’s, Hitler’s and Stalin’s world empire dreams ended in violence and bloodshed.

But what about the European Union. Is that not an example of a benign empire in the spirit of Kant? It was created to abolish war between European national states in the wake of the two world wars. As a citizen of Israel Hazony naturally has his doubts concerning EU, which has always tended to support the Palestinian revolutionaries. He notes that the experiment in Europe has no strong executive for conducting foreign policy and waging war. Hazony regards Europe as a protectorate of the United States. It certainly is a protectorate in military affairs. The nuclear umbrella of the United States is probably the most important aspect. The alternative would be, so Hazony, German rearmament and more concentration of power in Germany. EU is having a number of problems and in the end it will most likely be ruled by centrally placed officials in spite all the founding instruments. Central technocrats will interpret, ignore, and alter any documents in light of their own understanding of what is required for the prosperity of this centrally controlled empire.

Historical experience favors the national state. It is formed of families and tribes that share a common history. A healthy national state does not want outside interference in its affairs. The Westphalian peace was based on a realist understanding of international politics. It did not eliminate war but it created a valuable balance of power.

A system of national states is preferable to a worldview that has only one true doctrine, globalism, a central world rule and promised salvation if one submits to it. Balance of power is the alternative where no autocratic or totalitarian state grows to strong.

Hazony’s bok in defense of the national state and civic nationalism is a welcome warning against the growing attempts by internationalists and globalists to create another failed world state. Most likely we will see not only in Europe a backlash against Kantian thinking. The reaction will take different forms. Hazony ends with the conclusion that there is no moral maturity in embracing a single benevolent empire. It will not be able to take care of humanity, judge for us and enforcing its judgements upon us. Moral maturity, he rightly argues, is to stand on our own feet, learn to govern ourselves and defend ourselves without harming those around us. It would also possibly include giving assistance to those who are closest to us. We should hope that when the time comes we can pass our national freedom on to our children.

CHINA IS GROWING CHALLENGE TO AMERICAN SECURITY

January 31, 2019

Washington Free Beacon’s China expert Bill Gertz on January 29, 2019 reported on US intelligence leaders warning Congress that China is a significant challenge to American security. The communist leaders of the leading opponent to the West is preparing for ideological war against the present democratic world order. Excerpts below:

“While we were sleeping in the last decade and a half, China had a remarkable rise in capabilities that are stunning,” Director of National Intelligence Dan Coats told the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence.

Major Chinese advances were the result of large-scale theft of American technology and other intellectual property, and inserting Chinese agents in U.S. laboratories to steal know-how for China. The theft ranged from automobile manufacturing to sophisticated software to military-related research and development information, Coats said.

Globally, China under President Xi Jinping is spreading its system in the developing world through an economic program called the Belt and Road Initiative.

“Rule of law, international norms, and fairness in trade and international engagements is not the Chinese model.”

“Chinese leaders will increasingly seek to assert China’s model of authoritarian capitalism as an alternative.”

…China will try to launch a program to reform the global governance system that Coats forecast will produce increased Chinese activism internationally and promote “a Chinese worldview that links China’s domestic vision to its international vision.”

The Chinese are seeking to block international criticism of the communist system, and also to erode norms, such as the idea that the international community has a legitimate role in scrutinizing human rights abuses. China also is seeking to narrow the definition of human rights based on economic standards as part of the effort.

[In 2011 under Obama it sounded differently]

”…my greatest concern, though, does not lie with a nation-state posing a threat to us as much as it is in the area of terrorism,” said then chief Clapper who through public statements revealed himself to be a…political partisan [of the left] after leaving office after the administration of President Barack Obama.

Coats said U.S. intelligence officials have been alerting American businesses to the Chinese dangers.

FBI Director Christopher Wray…testified:

“The Chinese counterintelligence threat is more deep, more diverse, more vexing, more challenging, more comprehensive, and more concerning than any counterintelligence threat I can think of,”….

Wray said the American people are beginning to wake up to Beijing’s control over supposedly private Chinese businesses.

“The lines between the Chinese government and Chinese Communist Party are blurred if not totally erased,” Wray said. “The lines between the Chinese government and state-owned enterprises, the same.”

Defense Intelligence Agency Director Lt. Gen. Robert Ashley said Chinese products, such as semiconductors or microchips, pose a threat to the military supply chain used to build weapons systems. DIA is working to make sure weapons are not built with Chinese products purchased by U.S. suppliers that could pose a security risk of sabotage or remote hacking.

On Huawei, Ashley said the company is not as independent as other international companies, and cannot decide for itself whether to become a private firm or state-controlled company.

“That decision does not lie with Huawei,” he said. “It lies with the [Chinese Communist Party]; it lies with Xi Jinping in the way that they are starting to centralize greater the management of those businesses.”

The DIA director described the Chinese system as “authoritarian capitalism” with the government and Party controlling Chinese companies and requiring they provide business and other information to Beijing.

Other threats highlighted by the intelligence leaders during the annual threat briefing include:

The danger from weapons of mass destruction will grow in 2019, especially the use of chemical arms.

China, Russia, Iran, and North Korea are increasingly using cyber attacks to “threaten both minds and machines” to steal information and target infrastructure.

North Korea remains a threat and is unlikely to give up its nuclear arms, despite talks on denuclearization.

Iran will threaten U.S. interests in 2019 based on Tehran’s regional ambitions and improved military capabilities.

China and Russia are training and equipping military space forces and fielding new antisatellite (ASAT) weapons to target American satellites while pushing for global agreements banning space weapons.

Chinese cyber attacks are a major threat and could be used for temporary disruption of critical infrastructure, such as disrupting a natural gas pipeline for days to weeks.

Russia remains a capable U.S. adversary and is developing new strategic and conventional weapons.

Iran currently has not renewed development of nuclear weapons but Iranian officials have publicly threatened to reverse some of the constraints of the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action limiting its nuclear programs.

Iran continues to develop long-range missiles.

China will continue building up its military maritime presence in the South China and will continue to pressure Taiwan into accepting Beijing’s claims on the island.

Coats: Xi removed one of the few checks on his power in March 2018 by eliminating presidential term limits. The Party also increased control over the economy and society by tightening legal and media controls, marginalizing independent voices, and intensifying repression of Muslims, Christians and other religious minorities.

Perhaps “millions” of ethnic Uighurs are being held in detention camps as part of the repression.

China also is increasing the use of technology for repression through facial recognition, biometrics, and vehicle GPS tracking to “bolster its apparatus of domestic monitoring and control,” Coats stated.

One significant disclosure by Coats is China’s global ambitions. By contrast, U.S. intelligence analysts for many years in the past insisted China had no hegemonic objectives beyond Asia.

“We assess that China’s leaders will try to extend the country’s global economic, political, and military reach while using China’s military capabilities and overseas infrastructure and energy investments under the Belt and Road Initiative to diminish U.S. influence,” Coats said.

Militarily, China is planning additional military bases and access agreements beyond its lone overseas military base on the Horn of Africa at Djibouti. The Chinese are exploring bases, support facilities, or access agreements in Africa, Europe, Oceania, Southeast Asia, and South Asia.

China also is using its commercial development and military ties to expand its military reach globally.

“Successful implementation of the Belt and Road Initiative could facilitate PLA access to dozens of additional ports and airports and significantly expand China’s penetration of the economies and political systems of participating countries,” Coats stated.

Comment: In addition to these warnings in the US Congress foreign policy experts Graham Allison and Dimitri. K. Simes in a Wall Street Journal article in January 2019 explained according to National Interest journal that an entente between Moscow and Beijing is growing. Excerpts below:

…the piece in the Wall Street Journal …[is] titled “A Sino-Russian Entente Threatens America” explains that American foreign policy is inadvertently prompting the two great powers to collaborate more closely. “This grand alignment of the aggrieved has been moving from the realm of the hypothetical toward what could soon be a geostrategic fact. Beijing and Moscow are drawing closer together to meet what each sees as the `American threat.’” In conclusion, Allison and Simes state, “a sound U.S. global strategy would combine greater realism in recognizing the threat of a Beijing-Moscow alliance, and greater imagination in creating a coalition of nations to meet it.”

It is important here to point out that it is the United States that is at last reacting to the growing threats. China has since the collapse of the Soviet Union taken over the role as leading communist empire. The regime in Beijing also before 1991 had global aspirations. These were of a different kind as the plan was to encircle the cities (the West) from the Third World. China was then supporting communist inspired uprisings of what was called ”the Asian, African and Latin American peoples”.

Numbers, so the Maoist rulers, were to decide in the long run, the countryside would encircle the West. This was the Communist Chinese version of ”Demography is Destiny”. The strategy failed and China is now instead using its economic and military power to challenge the West using ”authoritarian capitalism” as a weapon.

THE CHINA CHALLENGE TO THE WEST – THE FALSE DREAM OF REFORM IN CHINA SINCE 1991

January 30, 2019

Washington Free Beacon on January 28, 2019, lauded the indictments of Chinese company Huawei and cited comments by Senator Tom Cotton, Republican from Arkansas. Excerpts below:

Senator Tom Cotton (R., Ark.) praised the Justice Department’s formal charges against Chinese telecom giant Huawei and its chief financial officer on Monday, saying they gave the U.S. more information about the company’s “campaign of theft and economic sabotage against America.”

Huawei and its CFO, Meng Wanzhou, were charged with crimes that included stealing trade secrets, obstruction of justice, and bank fraud by evading sanctions against Iran…

Cotton has played a leading role in the U.S. Senate in calling attention to Huawei’s skirting of sanctions and role in Chinese spying. U.S. intelligence agencies have linked Huawei to Chinese military and intelligence services, and the Washington Free Beacon reported the telecom giant has been targeted as part of a wider effort by the Trump administration to press China in trade negotiations and over its technology theft.

Cotton: ”Huawei has played a key role in spreading China’s spying capabilities around the world.”

Cotton said Congress should act by passing his bill, the Telecommunications Denial Order Enforcement Act.

Meng was arrested on Dec. 1 in Canada at the request of American prosecutors.

Comment: ”How China’s Economic Aggression Threatens the Technologies and Intellectual Property of the United States and the World” is a report by White House Office of Trade and Manufacturing Policy of June 2018.
In the report is pointed out:

”Physical theft through economic espionage by company insiders or others who have trusted access to trade secrets and confidential business information provides China with a significant means to acquire U.S. technologies and intellectual property. In describing China’s use of economic espionage as part of a broader strategy to acquire U.S. technology companies, the U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission observes:

China appears to be conducting a campaign of commercial espionage against U.S. companies involving…human infiltration to systematically penetrate the information systems of U.S. companies to steal their intellectual property, devalue them, and acquire them at dramatically reduced prices. The indictment is an opportunity for US to find out more about the deceitful practices of the large Chinese telecom company.

Free Beacon in 2018 published a report by China expert Bill Gertz on how China is seeking global hegemony. Gertz desribed the testimony in Congress on how China’s large-scale military buildup, regional coercion, and economic aggression are part of plan for global domination.

The nuclear and conventional weapons buildup, militarization of islets in the South China Sea and global infrastructure investments aimed at controlling nations are signs Beijing has emerged as America’s most significant national security challenge, a panel of specialists told a hearing of the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence.

“This supremacy is the heart of the ‘China Dream.’ China’s arsenal in this campaign for supremacy includes economic, informational, political, and military warfare.”

“The battle to hold off China starts in the Taiwan Strait”

“Previous attempts to appease China failed to improve our bilateral relations,” he said. “In fact, China has only become emboldened and may now be the preeminent threat to American security, our economy, and our values.”

U.S. policies toward China since economic engagement began in the 1980s were guided by early claims China posed no threat. Successive administrations advocated strengthening China through trade and investment in the hope the communist system would eventually reform.

President Trump, however, directed a major shift in U.S. policy toward China by recognizing Beijing as “revisionist” power that threatens U.S. security and economic interests.

Trump has pressured China on its trade and technology theft and recently announced plans to impose tariffs on Chinese goods.

Curbs on Chinese investment in national security-related purchases also are planned.

Dan Blumenthal, a China expert at the American Enterprise Institute, testified that many China hands were wrong about China’s rise in the past.

Blumenthal called for directly confronting the Chinese Communist Party and its weaknesses.

“They constantly come at us with political warfare, information campaigns, propaganda. We let them off the hook,” he said, adding that the Chinese public should be given more robust information about what the ruling party is doing.

China’s ruling party is not simply seeking to preserve its hold on power but is “a Leninist party overseeing a continental empire that’s going to sea,” Blumenthal said.

China is expanding into the Pacific and also advancing in and around the Indian Ocean, using its commercial Belt and Road investment program as a “cash-for-access deal” in many locations.

“From a technological standpoint, the PRC has quickly achieved parity with U.S. Navy standards and capacities for warship and submarine production,” [one expert said].

“If some currently unintended event does not provoke a military confrontation before then, we have until 2020—the deadline that [Chinese supreme leader] Xi Jinping has given the [People’s Liberation Army] to be ready to invade Taiwan.

From that point on, we can expect China to strike.”

China has begun tightening a noose around Taiwan, recently holding large-scale attack exercises in the Taiwan Strait and flying bombers and strike aircraft around the island.

Chinese air forces also currently are threatening Japan’s Senkaku islands and are militarizing disputed islands in the South China Sea with missiles and aircraft.

Beijing also announced plans to develop new nuclear-capable long-range bombers—another indicator of global power projection plans.

In addition to its growing military power, China is using political warfare capabilities under a doctrine described as “uniting with friends and disintegrating enemies,”

“In any conflict within the Indo-Pacific region or globally, the PRC’s fight for public opinion will be the PRC’s second battlefield, on which it will wage a wide range of political warfare operations.”

The information warfare will employ strategic psychological operations to promote the narratives of events, actions, and policies with the goal of controlling the Chinese public and influencing policies of both friends and foes.

[Another expert] said the Chinese military also is developing space warfare capabilities, including plans to use the moon as a base.

“China’s space control ambitions extend to achieving eventual control of the earth-moon system.”

On non-military power, China plans to use its financial power in a program called Belt and Road Initiative…It will produce a “debt trap” for developing states that can be coerced into cooperating China’s strategic aims.

The United States needs a comprehensive long-term strategy aimed at countering the Chinese threat. “Such a strategy must include a military, economic, and ally focus, and a diplomatic, political, and informational focus.”

It is clear from these hearings that the United States need a fundamental shift in dealing with China and recognize Beijing as the main threat to U.S. security. Strategic communications need to be strengthened to counter Chinese information warfare. Closer ties to Taiwan is another must.

It is time after the failures of the Obama administration that the United States returns to its role as a maritime power that cooperates with allies.

An improvement in the field of forward defense against China has started during the Trump administration. China is now the leading challenger to the West. Two other Eurasian empires are also challenging the United States and all of the West: Russia and Iran.

FREEDOM FOR VENEZUELA ?

January 25, 2019

Fox News on January 24, 2019, reeported on prospects for the liberation of Venezuela from socialist oppression. Excerpts below:

The South American country is navigating uncharted political waters after congress chief Juan Guiado declared himself interim head of state on … and demanded democracy and free elections – quickly garnering the diplomatic backing of the United States. Maduro however has been backed by the likes of Russia and China.

“The citizens of Venezuela have suffered for too long at the hands of the illegitimate Maduro regime,” President Donald Trump said in a tweet officially recognizing Guaido as the Interim President of Venezuela on January 23.

“The people of Venezuela have courageously spoken against Maduro and his regime and demand freedom and the rule of law,” he said in a White House statement.

“The people of Venezuela are bravely working for a free future for their country,” German government spokesman Steffen Seibert tweeted on Thursday. “This now requires a political process that results in free and credible elections.”

Washington said it would ignore an order to remove its diplomats in 72 hours.

Russia has been propping up Maduro with arms deliveries and loans. Maduro visited Moscow in December, seeking Russia’s political and financial support. Over the last decade, China has given Venezuela $65 billion in loans, cash, and investment. Venezuela owes more than $20 billion.

The European Union called for Venezuelans authorities to respect the “civil rights, freedom and safety” of Guaido, but stopped short of recognizing him as interim president.

“On 23 January, the people of Venezuela have massively called for democracy and the possibility to freely determine their own destiny. These voices cannot be ignored,” EU foreign policy chief Federica Mogherni said in a statement.

“The EU strongly calls for the start of an immediate political process leading to free and credible elections, in conformity with the constitutional order.”

Tensions began ramping up earlier this month as Maduro took the oath of office for a second six-year term won in an election in May 2018 that many in the region contend was not free or fair because his strongest opponents were barred from running.

The assault on Maduro’s rule came after large crowds gathered in Caracas waving flags and chanting “Get out, Maduro!” in what was the biggest demonstration since a wave of unrest that left more than 120 dead in 2017.

Maduro has relied extensively on the military to maintain power amid the country’s growing economic hardships and humanitarian crisis.

Comment: Venezuela is yet another example of the catastrophic history of socialism in Latin America. The continent’s non-socialist are all supporting the new rival president in the oil rich country. Strong support is also coming from Great Britain and Canada.

As usual Maduro’s dictatorship is supported by the three main challengers of the West: China, Russia, and Iran. Russian influence in Venezuela is growing and may be time for the United States to rethink the Monroe Doctrine of 1823 that warns European countries to interfere in the western hemisphere.

National security adviser John Bolton said on January 24 that the White House is focused on “disconnecting” Venezuelan dictator Nicolas Maduro from his sources of revenue.

“We think consistent with our recognition of Juan Guaido as the constitutional interim president of Venezuela that those revenues should go to the legitimate government,” Bolton told reporters at the White House.

“We’re looking at a lot of different things we have to do, but that’s in the process. We’re speaking with governments in this hemisphere, which overwhelmingly recognize the new constitutional government,” Bolton continued.

Bolton said that Vice President Mike Pence spoke to President Guaido the evening before the recognition statement made by the president. US officials had been in touch with Guaido through the American Embassy in Caracas and that
“we’re working really around the clock here to do what we can to strengthen the new government.”

“The fact is that Venezuela is in our hemisphere, I think we have a special responsibility here, and I think the president feels very strongly about it,” Bolton said.

Meanwhile, Secretary of State Mike Pompeo warned Maduro also on January 24 not to use force against mass demonstrations and urged international support for Guaido.

“The time for debate is done. The regime of former president Nicolas Maduro is illegitimate,” Pompeo said at a special meeting of the Organization of American States.

“His regime is morally bankrupt, it’s economically incompetent, and it is profoundly corrupt, and it is undemocratic to the core,” he added.

“I reiterate our warning about any decision by remnant elements of the Maduro regime to use violence to repress the peaceful democratic transition,” said Pompeo, who urged all members of the OAS to recognize Guaido.

PARTIET SOM TOG EMOT PENGAR FRÅN SOVJET FÅR ÖKAT INFLYTANDE I SVERIGE

January 18, 2019

Det svenska valet 2018 har lett till en januariöverenskommelse (JÖ) som ger inflytande till Vänsterpartiet (tidigare Sveriges kommunistiska parti). Det partiet tog emot stora summor i understöd från Moskva från 1917 till 1990. Uppgifterna nedan är hämtade ur den danska boken ”Guldet fra Moskva – Finansieringen af de nordiske kommunistpartier 1917 – 1990” (Forum, Köpenhamn, 2001, 356 sidor).

Guldet som flöt från Moskva efter andra världskriget livsviktigt för dåvarande och nuvarande stödpartiet till (s) efter andra världskriget:

1951 20 000 US dollar
1952 25 000 US dollar
1953 25 000 US dollar
1954 55 000 US dollar
1955 30 000 US dollar
1956 70 000 US dollar
1957 40 000 US dollar
1958 60 000 US dollar
1959 70 000 US dollar
1960 70 000 US dollar
1961 70 000 US dollar
1962 70 000 US dollar
1963 150 000 US dollar

I boken återges delar av en utskrift av protokoll nr. 8 från möte med det sovjetiska kommunistpartiets centralkommittés presidium den 20 maj 1953:

Punkt 2. Det anses vara ändamålsenligt att ge ekonomisk hjälp till följande kommunistpartier från medlen i Den internationella fackföreningsfonden:

Finlands kommunistparti 400 000 US dollar, Greklands kommunistparti 75 000 US dollar, Sveriges kommunistparti 25 000 US dollar, Norges kommunistparti 25 000 US dollar, Syriens och Libanons kommunistparti 25 000 US dollar, Australiens kommunistparti 25 000 US dollar och Österrikes kommunistparti 400 000 US dollar (beloppet till det österrikiska kommunistpartiet skulle utbetalas i schilling).

Informationen om guldflödet från Moskva till systerpartierna runt om i världen har hämtats från dokument som blev tillgängliga efter Sovjetunionens kollaps år 1991.

A NEW BEGINNING ON THE MIDDLE EAST: MIKE POMPEO’S SPEECH IN CAIRO

January 14, 2019

Fox News on January 11, 2019 reported on Secretary of State Mike Pompeo’s speech in Cairo as a fundamental turning point for U.S. foreign policy. Excerpts below:

Pompeo said, “Now comes the real new beginning” – a jibe at the speech Obama gave in Cairo early in 2009, in which he essentially apologized for American Middle East policy going back decades in remarks titled “A New Beginning.”

Pompeo’s view is unequivocal and crystal clear: “America is a force for good in the Middle East.” Expect our adversaries abroad and snowflakes at home to be mighty upset at this moral clarity and self-confidence from the greatest, freest country on Earth. Our real allies will love it.

Pompeo’s speech had three watershed components:

First, Pompeo made it clear that the chief focus of U.S. policy in the Middle East is thwarting Iran’s dangerous and tyrannical ambitions. While violent jihadist groups like ISIS and Al Qaeda still exist and deserve our attention, they are now a lesser threat.

Second, Pompeo specifically called out “radical Islamism” and condemned Obama for not doing so. This is a refinement and extension of President Trump’s condemnation of “radical Islamic terrorism,” which is the tactic that Islamists use when they go violent.

In contrast to failed efforts to either spread American democracy or apologize for it, this means we can rally all of those opposed to radical Islamism, including monarchies and imperfect republics across the Middle East that oppose Islamist theocracy. It means we can be clear about opposing not only terrorists like Al Qaeda, but Islamist political groups like the Muslim Brotherhood.

Third, Pompeo outlined the Trump administration’s rigorous efforts at diplomacy across the Middle East, which have contributed to radical change and unprecedented cooperation. Pompeo disclosed that “Egypt, Oman, Kuwait and Jordan have all been instrumental in thwarting Iran’s efforts to evade sanctions,” and lauded assistance from Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates (UAE).

He added that “private companies in France, Germany, Britain and elsewhere have calculated that enriching themselves through work with the regime is bad for business” – a gentle and much-deserved slap at the governments of those fading allies that have actively opposed getting tough on Iran.

Finally but crucially, Pompeo included a cautionary principle regarding what the U.S. is willing to do in the Middle East. Remarking about U.S. support he said: “But ‘assist’ is the key word. We ask every peace-loving nation of the Middle East to shoulder new responsibilities for defeating Islamist extremism.”

This is the fundamental essence of “America First.” [USA] will not apologize for America, we will stand up for our interests, and we will cooperate with our allies as long as they are willing to share the burden of preserving freedom.

Comment: It has long been clear that there will be no peace in the Middle East until Iran stops its support for terrorism in the region. Islamic empires have traditionally been closed societies that use clandestine operations and covert actions to reach their goals. The governing elite, as in today’s Iran, always feared treachery. There were no codes of law and no ethical guidelines in the affairs of state. The present Iran is an heir to the Islamized Persian empire where there were no ideas of citizenship or a common public secular law. Those who hold power in Tehran in 2019 came to power in radical strife and conflict and is seeking influence and conquest using irregular warfare and subversion.

ANTICOMMUNIST ARCHITECTURE IN SOUTH KOREA

January 3, 2019

During the 1960s and 1970s anticommunism was reflected in architecture and urban planning in the South Korean capital of Seoul. The Federation of Artistic and Cultural Organizations of Korea (FACOK) was founded with the Korean Institute of Architects as a member of FACOK.

The Freedom Center is one example of the buildings constructed in the 1960s. Other examples are statues of national war heroes (Yi Sun Sin), and the War Memorial. There were plans to fortify Seoul and coastal development plans for the Han River and south of the river.

Yi Sun Sin (1545 – 1598) was a naval commander during the Japanese invasions of Joseon (Korea) that lasted from 1592 to 1598. The invasion is also known as the Seven Year War, or the Imjin War. The official name of Yi’s title was “naval commander of the three provinces” as he was in charge of navies of Chungcheong, Jeolla, and Gyeongsang provinces. He is known for his exceptional leadership and naval strategies which resulted in victories in all his twenty three battles. Although he was arrested and relegated for a while, he was soon restored to lead Joseon’s navy till the last battle.

The War Memorial of Korea, located in Yongsan-gu, Seoul, exhibits and preserve materials related to the Korean War and serves as a national moral educational venue. It was established to commemorate the noble sacrifice of patriotic martyrs by the War Memorial Service Korea Society on June 10, 1994. The museum houses approximately 33,000 artifacts with about 10,000 on display at an indoor and outside exhibition halls.

There are six separate indoor halls, including Expeditionary Forces Room, Patriotic Memorial Room, War History Room, 6•25 Korean War Room, Development Hall and Large Machinery Room. The outdoor exhibition hall showcases large-sized weapons. Visitors of all ages from children to adults can also participate in 20 various educational programs and diverse cultural events such as military music and honor guard events, drawing contest, cultural event and more. The character of War Memorial of Korea is ‘Mudori’ featuring a helmet symbolizing the protection of the nation and a bay leaf meaning peace.

The total area of the War Memorial is 116,793m² with the exhibition halls 20,360m² .

In the Memorial Hall there is an exhibition hall dedicated to the memory of patriots involved in past war efforts. The place presents sculptures, reliefs, and wall paintings under the theme of overcoming hardship, and working towards the unity, prosperity and eternity of the nation.

There is also a war history from prehistoric era to the Japanese colonial period. Military remains, relics, and documents are on display as well. Among them are war & victory records, ammunition, the Turtle Ship (and other military vessels from the Joseon Dynasty), fortress models, and more.

The background of the Korean War is presented with the progression of the war and how a truce was eventually established. Exhibits also display ammunition used by hostile and friendly forces, information and artifacts from people displaced by the war, and information on major battles.

The role of the expeditionary forces was important. Information in this exhibit describes the Vietnam War and the implication of Korean troops dispatched in Vietnam. Other information explains the activities Korean troops were mainly engaged in during the Vietnam War, and the tactics of the Viet Cong.

The ROK Armed Forces part presents the progression of the Korean Army, Navy, Air Force and Marine Corps from the time of their inception till today.

The South Korean defense industry is presented with replicas of state-of-the-art weapons that are produced by domestic companies. Items include fighters, submarines, destroyers, and communication apparatuses.

Around 110 pieces of large military equipments/symbols are on display. They include Korean War sculptures, the Statue of Brethren, the Statue of King Gwanggaeto, AH-2, T-34 of the North, US B-52 and others.

NAMSAN FREEDOM CENTER, SEOUL, SOUTH KOREA

January 2, 2019

Korean architect Kim Swoo-geun (1931 – 1986), born in Chongjin, North Hamgyong (today’s North Korea), settled in Seoul in 1943.

He spent most of his youth in the Bukchon area, marked by a concentration of narrow alleys. Many say that this period impacted his design philosophies in later years, marked by mysteriously yet organically twisted spaces.

Kim enrolled in the Architecture College of Seoul National University in 1950, but due to the 1950-53 Korean War, he dropped out and moved to Japan. There, he studied architecture at the Architecture College of Tokyo University of the Arts.

He came back to Korea in 1960, and since then, designed about 200 important structures across the country. They include Seoul Olympic Stadium (in Jamsil, southern Seoul), Freedom Center (in Namsan, central Seoul), Kyungdong Presbyterian Church (in Jangchung-dong, central Seoul), the South Korean ambassador’s residence in Washington, D.C., and Chuncheon Children’s Hall (Chuncheon, Gangwon), just to name a few.

Namsan Freedom Center Seunggonggwan Hall was opened as a part of South Korean anticommunist state policy during the era of on October 15th, 1966. On the mark stone, ex-President Park Jeong-heui’s own handwriting is carved. The Seunggonggwan Hall is located in Korea Freedom Federation in Namsan Mountain.

It was financed by the South Korean government and Korea ASEA Anti-communism Federation. Opened in September 1962, the groundbreaking ceremony of Freedom Center had about 1,000 attendants both citizens and leading government officials .

Within the Freedom Center, there was an International Freedom Hall, a main hall, International Conference Room, Freedom Plaza, memorial hall, a library, PR center, and an anticommunism education institute. Anticommunist education, anti-communist theory, tactics and strategy, and anticommunist information was central government policy.

The Seunggonggwan Hall exhibited various weapons and war photos. Victory-Over-Communism was taught in the Seunggong School.

The South Korean government supported the Korea Anti-communism Federation to promote the policy of anticommunism, and this federation extended the propaganda activities and education and enlightenment activities to stimulate the awareness of anti-communism and establishment of the theory of anti-communism, and through the reinforcement of anti-communism internationally, it tried to gain the support in international society.

The building is now used for other purposes but there is an ”Anti-Communist Exhibition Hall” in the building.

Center address: Jangchungdong 2-ga, Jung-gu, Seoul

HLODSKVIDA ELLER SÅNGEN OM HUNNERSLAGET – DEN ISLÄNDSKA EDDADIKTEN OM SLAGET MELLAN GOTER OCH HUNNER

December 28, 2018

Inledning

Översättningen är gjord av den skånske diktaren Albert Ulrik Bååth (1853 – 1912) Han blev 1891 intendent för den etnografiska avdelningen vid Göteborgs museum och samma år docent i fornnordisk litteratur vid Göteborgs högskola. Hans första diktsamling utkom 1879.

Bååth utgav också flera arbeten om fornnordisk litteratur och översatte till svenska “Niáls saga” (1879), “Egil Skalle Grimssons saga” (1883), “Fornnordiska sagor i svensk bearbetning” (1886), “Från vikingatiden” (1888), Nordiskt forntidslif (1890), Nordmannaskämt (1895), “Kärlek i hednadagar, Skalden Kormaks saga” (s. å.); “Kvädet om Skide” (1896), Sighvat Tordsons dikt “Fria ord” (1898), Nordmannamystik (s. å.), “Sagan om Gudrun” (1900), “Sagan om Grette den starke” (1901) och “Kung Valdemar och bisp Absalon i fejd med venderna. Efter Saxo” (1902). En minnesvård finns sedan 1916 på Gottskär vid Kungsbacka.

Vissa ändringar för att modernisera språket har gjorts.

Hlodskvida är en eddadikt och räknas till de äldsta. Hela dikten finns inte fullständigt samlad i någon pergamenthandskrift. Den finns nästan i sin helhet enbart i en handskrift från 1600-talet (Uppsala R:715). Namnet Hlodskvida förekommer inte i någon handskrift utan det lanserades av Axel Olrik. Första gången dikten presenterades i sin helhet var i Edda Minorica år 1903.

Hunner angrep Europa från sitt ursprung i Centralasien. Historikern Jordanes anger i ”Getica” att hunnerna var ett bistert folk.

De angrep det Första gotiska kungariket i öst år 375 och införlivade det i sitt rike.

Historiskt var hunnerna ett hot mot Västeuropa ca. 430 – 450 e. Kr., en inte särskilt lång period. Hlodskvida behandlar således ett stoff som är över 1500 år gammalt.

Till sist skall bara nämnas en utgåva av Heidreks saga (utg. Jon Helgason), Köpenhamn 1924. En översättning till engelska finns från 1960 av Christopher Tolkien (“The Saga of King Heidrek the Wise”).

Hlodskvida

0. Humle var fordom
hunnernas härskare,
Gissur götarnas,
Angantyr goternas,
Valdar danernas,
Kjar valernas,
Alrek den dristige
engelsmäns drott.

1. I Hunaland
Hlod vart boren
med dart och svärd
och sid brynja,
med hjälm, av ringar
rikligt smyckad,
med vältämjd häst
i heliga nejden.
Lad sporde sin faders död och därtill, att brodern Angantyr tagits till konung över det rike, deras fader ägt. Han blev ense med konung Humle om att han skulle fara till sin broder Angantyr och av honom kräva ut arvet — dock först med vänliga ord. Det berättas här så:

2. Heidreks arvinge
red öster ifrån.
Han kom till den gård,
där goter bo,
han kom till Århem
sitt arv att kräva.
Här drack Angantyr
Heidreks gravöl.
Lad nådde Århem med en stor här. Det heter:

3. En man såg han stånda
vid salen höga
sent om kvällen
och sade då:
— Gå in, krigare,
i salen höga,
bed Angantyr byta
med brodern ord!
Krigaren gick in; han trädde fram till kungens bord, hälsade höviskt och sade:

4. Hit har kommit
Heidreks arving,
broder din,
den dådlystne.
På hästens rygg
reslig i sadeln,
den mäktige fursten
vill med dig tala.
Då kungen hörde detta, kastade han kniven, steg upp från bordet och klädde sig i brynja. Han tog en vit sköld i ena handen och Tyrving i den den andra. Det vart ett väldigt larm i hallen. Det säges:

5. Den ädelborne
man bullrande följde,
envar ville lyssna
till Lads ord,
höra vad Angantyr
hade att säga.
Angantyr sade:

6. — Var välkommen! Följ med oss in till dryckeslaget! Mjöd ska vi dricka efter vår fader; först dricker vi för vår sämja, sedan för allas vår ära i all den glans, som står oss till buds.

7. — Hit har vi kommit, genmälde Hlod, i annan avsikt än att fylla vår buk. Och han kvad:

8. Jag vill hälften ha
av vad Heidrek ägde:
redskap och vapen
och rika skatter,
kor och kalvar
och kvarnar, som susa,
träl och trälinna
och trälborna barn,

9. Den härliga skog,
som heter Mörkved,
den kostbara graven,
där kungar vila,
och hyllningsstenen,
som står vid Danpstad —
hälften av borgar,
dem Heidrek ägde,
av folk och land
och lysande ringar.

Angantyr kvad:
10. Brista skall, broder,
den blänkande skölden,
de kalla spjuten
klingande mötas
och mången sven
segnar i gräset,
förrn hälften jag ger
åt Humles ättling,
eller Tyrving jag slår
i tvenne stycken!
Och han fortfor:

11. Dig fägna jag skall
med fagra ringar
och skatters mängd,
som mest dig täckas —
med tolvhundra män,
tolvhundra hästar,
tolvhundra krigare,
som svänga sköldar.

12. Till skänks var man
jag mycket giver,
som aldrig tillförne,
han ägt så härligt.
Var man jag giver
en mö att famna,
på var mö jag spänner
ett smycke om hals.

13. Där till häst du sitter,
med silver jag dig skyler;
när upprätt du går,
med guld jag dig täcker;
runtomkring dig
må ringar glimma;
jag dig en tredje-
del ger av Godtjod.

Kapitel 14
Kung Hedreks fosterfader Gissur Grytingalide stod där bredvid Angantyr. Han var nu mycket gammal. När han hörde, vad konungen bjöd sin broder, syntes det honom ett alltför gott anbud. Han sade:

14. Mot skall det tagas
av trälkvinnosonen,
frillobarnet
av kungabörd.
På högen som herde
horbarnet satt,
när ädle fursten
mot arvet tog.
Hlod vart högeligen vred över, att han kallades trälkvinnoson och frillobarn, som han också fick heta, ifall han mottog broderns anbud. Strax vände han om med alla sina män. Han kom tillbaka till sin morfar kung Humle i Hunaland och förtalde honom, att brodern inte unnat honom hälften av arvet. Allt deras samtal sporde kung Humle, och han vart mycket harmsen över att hans dotters son skulle kallas en trälinnas. Han kvad:

15. I vinter vi sitta
i säll ro,
med gamman vi dricker
drycken den ädla,
hunner vi lära
hugga med svärd,
som dristigt de sedan,
till dåd bära.
Och åter kvad han:

16. Vi skall dig samla
stridsmän, Hlod!
Väcka vi skall
väldig kamp
med tolvårskrigare
och tvåårsfålar.
Så ska hunnernas
här församlas.
Denna vinter sutto kung Humle och Hlod i lugn hemma. Men när våren kom, drog de samman en så stor här, att landet vart helt blottat på vapenfört manskap. Åstad drog alla män, som var över tolv år och kunde på ett härnadståg sköta hästar och vapen; och alla hästar togs med, tvååriga och äldre. Så manstark var deras här, att den måste räknas i tusental, och smärre skaror än på tusen man gavs det icke i fylkingarna. En hövding blev satt över varje tusende, och ett banér var över varje fylking; i denna fanns fem tusenden, i varje tusende tretton hundraden och i varje hundrade fyra gånger fyrtio kämpar. Tillsammans voro fylkingarna tre och trettio.

Kapitel 14

Då alla samlat sig, red de igenom skogen Mörkved, som skiljer Hunaland från Reidgotaland. Så snart de kommit ut ur skogen, såg de framför sig jämna marker och stora bygder. Här ute på slätten stod en fager borg. Över den rådde Angantyrs och Hlods syster Hervar tillsammans med sin fosterfar Ormar. De voro satta att värna landet emot hunnernas här, och de hade i borgen mycket folk. En morgon vid soluppgången stod Hervar i vakttornet ovan borgporten. Söder ut såg hon hän emot skogen stora dammskyar, drivna upp av hästtramp; då och då skylde de solen. Igenom töcknet såg hon det glimma från fagra, guldsmyckade sköldar, förgyllda hjälmar och vita brynjor …Hon såg, att detta var hunnernas här, och att deras styrka var stor. Med hast gick hon ned, kallade till sig sin lursven och bjöd honom blåsa folket tillsammans. Sedan sade hon:
— Tag era vapen och gör er redo till strid! Du, Ormar, rid emot hunnerna och bjud dem kamp utanför södra borgporten!
Ormar kvad:

17. Sköldutrustad,
rida jag skall
att strid få i gång
mot goters här.
Han red ut ur borgen emot hunnerna. Med hög röst ropade han till dem och bjöd dem närma sig.
— Utanför borgporten söder ut på slätten bjuder jag er strid, sade han, den, som hinner först fram, bide den andre!
Ormar vände tillbaka till borgen. Med all sin här var Hervar nu stridsfärdig. Tillsammans med Ormar red hon i spetsen för den ut emot hunnerna; och den häftigaste kamp tog vid. Men enär hunnernas skaror tålde vida flera kämpar, vart det i Hervars här störst manspillan. Omsider föll hon själv, och folket stupade i mängd omkring henne. Då Ormar såg henne falla, tog han till flykt, och alla, som kunde det, följde honom. Han red dag och natt, så raskt han förmådde; han styrde sin färd till kung Angantyr i Århem. Hunnerna begynte nu att bränna och härja vida omkring i landet. Då Ormar kom inför Angantyr, kvad han:

18. Sunnan jag kommit
att säga detta:
all Mörkvedsheden
är härjad och svedd,
över Gotjod svämmar
krigares blod.
Och han fortfor:

19. Jag såg den höga
Heidreks dotter,
syster din,
segna till jord.
Hunnerna har
henne fällt
och många andra
av era kämpar.

20. Till stridens gamman
hon gladare gick
än till giljarn
att jaord skänka
eller till bänk
i brudgång.
När kung Angantyr hörde detta, skiftade hans anletsdrag uttryck. Han satt tyst. Omsider sade han:

21. — Obroderligt for man med dig, härliga syster!
Sedan betraktade han sin hird; han såg kring sig allenast en ringa styrka. Han kvad:

22. Många vi voro,
när mjöd vi drack;
nu färre vi är,
när flera tarvas.

23. Ingen jag ser
här stå i följet,
som dristar mot hunnernas
härsmakt rida,
mot fiendeflock
föra sin sköld —
fast han min bön
får och mitt guld!
Gissur den gamle svarade:

24. Ej jag ett öre
av dig kräver,
ingen klart
klingande guldskärv —
rustad med sköld,
rider jag dock
hunners fylkingar
fejd att bjuda.
Kung Heidrek hade givit den lagen, att, kom en fiendehär i landet och landets kung bestämde en plats för kampen, skulle vikingarna icke härja, förrän man frestat en sådan. Gissur klädde sig i rustning och goda vapen. Han sprang upp på sin häst, som vore han ännu ung. Han sporde konungen:

25. Varthän skall jag stämma
hunner till fejd?
Konung Angantyr kvad:

26. Stäm dem till Dylgja
på Dunheden,
till foten av Jösur-
fjällen dem stäm,
där goter ofta
gladdes åt kamp
och frejdade fick
fager seger!
Gissur red bort. Han höll inte inne sin häst, förrän han hunnit fram till hunnernas här. Dock red han dem blott så nära, att hans ord kunde höras av dem. Med hög stämma ropade han:

27. Förskräckt är er drott,
död honom bidar!
Vår fana är över er —
Oden er hatar!
Han tillade:

28. Vi strider vid Dylgja
på Dunheden,
vid foten av Jösur-
fjäll må vi mötas!
Bliven I dödens
i drabbning varje!
Oden, den höge,
jag har anropat:
han låter mitt spjut
nu susa över er!
Då Hlod hört Gissurs ord, sade han:

29. Grip Gissur
Grytingalide,
Angantyrs man,
från Århem kommen!
Men kung Humle kvad:

30. Inte må vi
mörda sändebud,
som ensamma är
ute på färd!
Gissur ropade:

31. Hornbågar edra
icke mig fäller!
Han gav sin häst sporrarna och red tillbaka till kung Angantyr. Han trädde inför honom och hälsade höviskt. Konungen sporde, om han funnit hunnerna. Han genmälde:
— Jag har talat med dem och stämt dem till strid på Dunheden och i Dylgjadalen.
Angantyr frågade, huru stor här hunnerna hade, och Gissur sade honom det. Sedan sände han ut män åt alla håll och stämde till sig alla, som ville ge hjälp och kunde föra vapen. Därefter drog han med sitt folk hän till Dunheden. Mycket stor var hären, han hade med sig. Snart kom hunnerna honom till mötes. De voro vida manstarkare.

32. Stor är deras styrka
Sex fylkingar samlade står
I var fylking femtusen man
I varje tusen trettonhundra
I vart hundrade hela fyra.

Kapitel 15
Nästa dag började kampen. Härarna slogs hela den dagen; om kvällen drog de till sina läger. Så stred de i åtta dagar, och ännu var alla hövdingarna i livet. De dödas antal kände ingen. Från alla orter drev folk till Angantyr, och så kom det sig, att han till sist inte hade färre folk än i förstone. Nu vart striden ännu hetsigare. Hunnerna gick allt eldigare fram, ty de såg, att de endast kunde vinna livet, ifall de fick seger — vanskligt blev det att få nåd av goter. Dessa värnade sin frihet och sin fosterjord, höll därför säkert stånd och eggade upp varandra. Då det led mot aftonen, gjorde de ett så våldsamt anfall, att hunnernas fylkingar krökte sig för det. När Angantyr blev detta varse, trädde han ut ur sköldborgen och ställde sig främst i fylkingen. Han hade Tyrving i hand, och slog han till marken både hästar och män. Då revs hunnernas kungsfylking upp, och de bägge bröderna Hlod och Angantyr skiftade hugg med varandra. Hlod och konung Humle föll, och hunnerna gav sig på flykt. Men goterna högg ned dem, och en sådan massa fällde de, att åarna stannade och flöto ur sina bäddar, och dalarna blev fulla av folk och hästar. Angantyr gick sedan att syna de fallna. Han fann Hlod, sin broder, och han kvad:

33. Jag bjöd dig, broder,
obrutna ringar,
skinande skatter,
dem själv du åtrått.
Nu har du till lön
för hårda kampen
varken land
eller lysande ringar!
Och åter kvad han:

34. Oss ödet förbannat:
din baneman är jag.
Det hålles i minne —
hård är nornors dom.
Länge var Angantyr kung i Reidgotaland. Han var mäktig och frikostig och en väldig härman. Kungaätter stammar ifrån honom.

Namnregister (urval)

Angantyr Heidriksson, gotisk kung

Gissur, gautarnas kung

Heidrek den vise

Humle, hunnernas kung

Kjar, valernas kung

Valdar, danernas kung

Geografiska namn (urval)

Daner

Danpstad, på stranden av Dnjepr

Dunheden, Donauheden

Gautar

Gautland

Gautland (östra)

Gautland (västra)

Gotaland, goternas land

Gotjod, goternas land

Götar, goter

Harvad fjäll

Hunner

Jassarfjoll, askkullarna

Mörkved

Valer

Århem