Archive for February, 2011

KOMMUNISTISKA MEDLÖPARE I SVERIGE

February 25, 2011

Det sena 1960-talets radikala studenter såg marxism, centralplanering och kommunism som lösningar på alla problem. Idag faller de stater som byggts upp på marxismens grund ihop som korthus. Både i det demokratiska västerlandet och i de tidigare kommunistiska staterna råder en förkrossande enighet om det marxistiska systemets skuld till det ekonomiska och moraliska sammanbrottet i Öst.

De som gick i bräschen för marxismen 1968 har inte försvunnit. De har genomfört den “långa marschen genom institutionerna” och sitter idag på ledande poster inom förvaltning, kulturliv och media. Då var de medlöpare. Vad är de idag?

Det är den brännande fråga som författaren Bertil Häggman tar upp i “Medlöparna”. Han berättar om namn som var okända på studentvänsterns 1960-tal, men idag är kända på ledande positioner inom departement, ämbetsverk, media och kulturliv.

Bertil Häggman är jurist och författare. Han är född 1940 och har skrivit ett flertal böcker som behandlar bland annat kommunistisk ideologi och utrikespolitiska frågor.

Beställes på nätet eller i närmaste bokhandel.

Bertil Häggman: Medlöparna. Pris 130:-. Porto och emballage 25:- tillkommer per beställning om den köps hos förlaget.

EN KRITISK GRANSKNING AV LENINS CLAUSEWITZKOMMENTARER – KOMMANDE BOK AV BERTIL HÄGGMAN

February 22, 2011

Under hösten 2011 utkommer Bertil Häggmans bok “En kritisk granskning av Lenins randanmärkningar och utdrag ur Carl von Clausewitz bok Om kriget“. Nedan återfinnes en innehållsförteckning

Inledning Massmördaren Lenin tolkar Clausewitz

Kap 1. Kriget är blott fortsättning på politiken med andra medel
(Första boken, första kapitlet)
Kap 2. Krigets mål och medel
(Första boken, andra kapitlet)
Kap 3. Kriget som uttryck för fientlig känsla
(Andra boken, andra kapitlet)
Kap 4. Även kriget är en form för mänskligt umgänge
(Andra boken, tredje kapitlet)
Kap. 5. Arméns stridsmoral
(Tredje boken, femte kapitlet)
Kap 6. Djärvhet
(Tredje boken, sjätte kapitlet)
Kap 7. Stridskrafter
(Femte boken, tredje kapitlet)
Kap 8. Det strategiska försvarets karaktär
(Sjätte boken, femte kapitlet)
Kap 9. Vilka är försvarsmedlen?
(Sjätte boken, sjätte kapitlet)
Kap 10. Hur man gör motstånd
(Sjätte boken, åttonde kapitlet)
Kap 11. Försvar i bergskrig
(Sjätte boken, sextonde kapitlet)
Kap 12. Nyckeln till ett land
(Sjätte boken, tjugotredje kapitlet)
Kap 13. Försvaret av en krigsskådeplats
(Sjätte boken, tjugoåttonde kapitlet)
Kap 14. Samma försvar när inget avgörande söks
(Sjätte boken, trettionde kapitlet)
Kap 15. Det strategiska anfallets karaktär
(Sjunde boken, andra kapitlet)
Kap 16. Det strategiska anfallets mål
(Sjunde boken, tredje kapitlet)
Kap 17. Absolut och verkligt krig
(Åttonde boken, andra kapitlet)
Kap 18. Krigets inre sammanhang
(Åttonde boken, tredje kapitlet)
Kap 19. Det begränsade målet
(Åttonde boken, femte kapitlet)
Kap 20. Kriget är ett medel för politiken
(Åttonde boken, sjätte kapitlet)
Kap 21. Krigsplanläggning när målet är att förinta fienden
(Åttonde boken, nionde kapitlet)
Noter

PRELIMINARY NOTES ON THE NUMEROUS ANCIENT GERMANIC RUIN LANGUAGES – A PROJECT

February 22, 2011

These notes by Ulf Berigsen are intended to offer an outline of existing Germanic languages. No effort to do this has so far been made.

Introduction

The core of the Germanic original home seems to be the Danish Archipelago. It also takes in the various littoral zones in South Norway and Sweden, as well as present day coasts of the Netherlands and Germany as far as Zeeland in the west and Ruegen in the east. 1)

Unfortunately there are no academic studies of a more extensive nature of Germanic ruin languages (the term has been used by German researchers beginning in the late 1980s, see for instance Germanische Rest- und Truemmersprachen, Hrsg Heinrich Beck, Berlin – New York, 1989) except for Gothic. This short list is a preliminary attempt to present a list of Germanic ruin languages. Most of the languages on this list are in the East Germanic group (as different from the West Germanic and North Germanic). The Proto-Germanic trunk branched out into these three branches in ancient times. The model was clearly inspired by the geographical locations of the earliest attested Germanic dialects.

Juergen Untermann, a contributor to the above mentioned collection of essays, is using the term ’Klein-Corpus-Sprache’ when referring to Gothic or Old Saxonian:

“Sie (die Sprachen, note) koennen so spaerlich sein, dass wir sie als ’Truemmer’ bezeichnen muessen, und damit die Sprache, die wir durch sie kennelernen, als “T r u e m m e r s p r a c h e”: das Oskisch-Umbrische oder das Venetische im antiken Italien…die Sprache der Runeninschriften Norddeutschlands und Juetlands… Worin die Truemmer bestehen, ist fuer die Definition einer Sprache als ’Truemmersprche’ znaechst belanglos: Es koennen Inschriften auf Bodenfunden sein, es koennen Namen von Personen, Orten und Voelkern sein, die uns durch die Vermittlung von in anderen Sprachen geschriebenen Kontexten zugaenglich werden. Belangvoll wird die Art der Ueberlieferung erstens, wenn wir nach der Identitaet und damit nach dem ’Namen’ einer Sprache fragen, und zweitens wenn wir sie qua Sprache beschreiben wollen…die archaelogischen Umstaende koennen es z.B. mit sich bringen, dass wir eine bestimmte Sprache nur durch Grabdenkmaeler bezeugt finden: Wurde diese Sprache nur als Sondersprache fuer diesen einen Bereich, nur als ’Grabsteinsprache’ gebraucht, oder ist sie uns (zufaellig) nur durch Grabsteine bekannt?”

GROUP I

Gothic (Goths, Ostrogoths, Visigoths)

Through MS such as the Codex Argenteus (Uppsala University Library) Gothic is reasonably well documented. Also Crimean Gothic is represented with a list of words by diplomat Busbecq in the sixteenth century.

Burgundic (Burgundians)

Documented. Not only personal names. Mentioned in Pliny’s Natural History 4.99. Possible origin the Danish island of Bornholm.

Vandalic (Vandals)

Documented. Not only personal names. Mentioned in Tacitus’ Germania 43.6. Possible origin in Vendsyssel in northernmost present Denmark.

Langobardic (Langobards)

Documented. Not only personal names. According to Langobard historian Paulus Diaconus. His source material seems to have indicated that the Langobards originally emigrated from the island of Scandinavia (Scadan, Scadanan).

GROUP II

Bastarnic (Bastarnians, ‘the impure or mixed ones‘). Mentioned in Pliny’s Natural History 4.100 and Tacitus’ Germania 46.1. Emigrated to the Carpathians, a mountain range sometimes referred to as Alpes Bastarnicae in classical literature.

Sciric (Scirians, ‘the pure ones‘). The Scirians reached the Black Sea area around 230 BC. Mentioned in Pliny’s Natural History 97. Possible connection to the Olbia inscription in present day Ukraine.

Erulic (Eruls, Heruls)

Documented. Only personal names. Mentioned in Jordanes’ Getica 23. For a reading of an Eruli personal name see the article by Dr. Norbert Wagner in the journal Beitraege zur Namenforschung, Heidelberg : Universitaetsverlag C. Winter pages 379 – 384 (2000).

Gepidic (Gepids, ‘the tardy ones‘)

Documented. Only personal names.

Rugic (Rugians)

Documented. Only personal names.

GROUP III (South Scandinavia and northern Germany)

Cimbric (Cimbrians). Possible origin region Himmerland in Jutland.

Documented. Only personal names.

Jutic (Jutes, Iutae)

Documented. Only personal names (?). For more details on Jutic personal names see Herrscherchronologien der Antiken Welt: Namen, Daten, Dynastien, Stuttgart: J.B. Metzler, 2004, around 400 pages. Possible origin Jutland. The Jutes settled in Kent, the Isle of Wight and southern Hampshire, the county opposite the island on the English mainland. The book mentioned here provides the names of the Burgundian, Gedpidian, Rugian, Vandal, Visigothic, Langobardian (including the Dukes of Benevent), Ostrogothic, Jutian, and Anglian ancient rulers.

Anglic (Angles)

Documented. Only personal names (?). See Bede’s Ecclesiastical History of the English People, chapter 1.5 and in Tacitus’ Germania 40.1. Possible origin Angel in eastern Slesvig/Schleswig.

GROUP IV (southern Scandinavian peninsula and Gotland)

Gutnic (Gutnians)

Gautic (Goetar)

Geatic (Geates)

Note (Group IV)

Sweden has preserved on its own territory up to the present day the remembrance of the tribal name Gauts (classical Greek gautoi, Ptolemy‘s goutai). The ablaut alterations of the Germanic strong verb *geutan ‘pour’, *geut, *gaut, *gut include a form which is phonologically identical with Gaut-. The *au form is preserved only in place-names. It can hardly be denied that a relationship exists between Geatas, Goetaland, Vaestergoetland, Oestergoetland and the ancient Goths, but to explain it is difficult.

The Importance of Personal Names

Only Gothic is the only reasonably well documented Germanic language. The other languages are to a great degree preserved in personal names. Onomastic research is therefore very important to the study of Germanic ruin languages. Several European countries have research projects for the study of those names.

Germany

Here should be noted Forschungsgruppe Nomen et gens (Name und Gesellschaft, Name and Society). Two projects in this group participate in IEMEN (Institut zur Interdisciplinaeren Erforschung des Mittelalters und seines Nachwirkens), which is supported by UNESCO.

Teilprojekt Langobarden

This project is headed by Prof. Dr. Joerg Jarnut of University of Paderborn (in this context Jarnut’s Prosopographische und sozialgeschichtliche Studien zum Langobardenreich in Italien (568 – 774) ought to be noted). Another source of interest is W.Bruckner, Die Sprache der Langobarden (1895), new edition 1969.

Teilprojekt Ostgermanische Voelker

This project is headed by Prof. Dr. Helmut Castritius, Tecnicl University Carolo-Wilhlmina at Braunschweig. Other participants are Dr. Gerd Kampers, University of Bonn and Claudia Weskamp, Paderborn.

Personal names can be regarded as indicators of the belonging to a group in a linguistical, ethnical, social and cultural belonging of those who carry those names. Thus Nomen et gens can be regarded both as a linguistic and an historical project for the evaluating a corpus of personal names of ancient Germanic peoples and kingdoms from the third century to the eighth century. Nomen et gens was started in 1990. A databank has been created for the treatment and recording of the names of the project.

Nomen et gens has been represented as a section at the International Congresses of Onomastic Sciences since Trier (1993) and the following congresses in Aberdeen (1996), Santiago (1999) and Uppsala (2002).

United Kingdom

There is a smilar project in the United Kingdom (Prosopography of Anglo-Saxon England, PASE). In this project the names until AD 800 have been documented (2005). An older list of names should be noted in this Contest (Onomasticon Anglo-Saxonicum. A List of Anglo-Saxon Proper Names from the Time of Beda to that of King John, Cambridge 1897. New edition 1969).

Austria

The Austrian goes back to the register (volume II) of the Lexikon der altgermanischen Namen (volume I-II, 1987 – 1990 of H. Reichert and R. Nedoma, Oesterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften. Schriftenreihe der Kommission fuer Algermanistik.Thesaurus Paleogermanicus. In the introduction the continuation in the form of a lexikon was promised as Kommentierte Bibliographie zur altgermanischen Namenkunde. Seven volumes are planned and the first of these was published in 2004 (Robert Nedoma, Personennamen in suedgermanischen Runeninschriften. Studien zur algermanischen Namenkunde I, 1, 1. Indogermanische Bibliothek. Begruendet von H.Hirt und W. Streitberg. Fortgefuehrt von H. Krahe, Heidelberg: Universitaetsverlag Winter, 450 pages). The program of the Austrian project was presented in 2002 (R.Nedoma, Altgermanische Anthroponyme in runenepigraphischen (und anderen) Quellen. Ein Projektbericht, in Person und Name. Methodische Probleme bei der Erstellung eines Personennamenbuches des Fruehmittelalters, ed. D.Geuenich et al.).

ENDNOTE

1) There is an excellent high quality book on the runic language in this area: Professor Hans Frede Nielsen, The Early Runic Language of Scandinavia – Studies in Germanic Dialect Geography, Heidelberg: Universitaetsverlag C.Winter (2000). Nielsen is professor at the South Danish University, Odnse, Denmark.

Ulf Berigsen participates in the Germanic Ruin Languages (GRL) Project, a private initiative. He has published on the history of ancient Germanic peoples or tribes.

GLOBAL CIVIL WAR AND THE ONGOING ARAB REVOLUTIONS

February 21, 2011

Introduction

During the Cold War civil war was mostly seen in the light of Marxist-Leninist revolution. When the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991 this demise did not lead to a lesser number of civil wars. On the contrary the number has risen considerably. In 2001 nearly all wars were internal. International wars tend to be short while civil wars last on average about seven years. The duration is actually increasing. It can therefore be concluded that the German professor Roman Schnur was a visionary, who recognized the problem of civil war decades ahead of colleagues. Thus it is a sobering experience to read his essay “Zwischenbilanz: Zur Theorie des Buergerkrieges – Bemerkungen ueber einen vernachlässigten Gegenstand” (in Revolution und Weltbuergerkrieg – Studien zur Ouverture nach 1789, Schriften zur Verfassungsgeschichte, Band 35, Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, 1983, 145 pages). Schnur (1927 – 1996) served briefly in the German Air Force at the end of World War II to study administrative law after 1946. As a jurist he rose quickly in the academic world and also served as judge. His first field of research was the internal religious civil war in France before around 1800.Much of the life work of this jurist was on the border of literary history and political science. Unfortunately he did not stay with the subject of civil war. But some of his writing is still of profound interest.

The Structure of Civil War

In his essay “Zur Theorie des Buergerkrieges” (first published in 1980) Schnur called for structural research in the area of internal war:

(Es) mangelt…strukturierte Beschreibungen und Analysen von Buergerkriegen, deren Verfeinerung in Bezug auf ständige Bildung von Arbeitshypothesen wichtige Erkenntnisse verspricht. Schon ein vorläufiger Vergleich dieser Art, die einige neuere Buergerkriege zum Gegenstand hat, zwingt wichtige Fragen…auf.” (p. 121).

He also complained that there was too much research on revolution. This was certainly the case in the era when political science was dominated by Marxists. After 1991 there has been some change, but a basic, structural theory is still lacking.

The Beginning

It can with some certainty be argued that the birth of civil war was outside continental Europe. What has been called the English Civil War was rather four civil wars in England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales from 1642 to 1651. The term, of course, is of latin origin (bellum civile) and Rome was certainly struck by what was also called bellum domesticum and bellum intestinum. Already in the terminology is a problem with the existing large number of terms (insurrection, conspiracy, revolution, pronunciamento [in Spain and South America], putsch, insurgency, coup d’etat). One possible definition of civil war is that it is a war between parties or factions within the same nation. One of the bloodiest and most terrible civil wars was the Russian Civil War 1917 – 1920. It involved on one side a united communist force and on the other side a number of different factions, some defending the old order and others seeking a democratic Russia. Actually the war was also a war of conquest by the Bolsheviks trying to secure the future Soviet Union as a base for world revolution:

V.I. Lenin expressed it in the following way:

Der Ausgang des Kampfes hängt in letzter Instanz davon ab, dass Russland, Indien, China usw., die gigantische Mehrheit der Bevölkerung der Erde stellen. Gerade diese Mehrheit der Bevölkerung wird denn auch in den letzten Jahren mit ungewöhnlicher Schnelligkeit in den Kampf um ihre Befreiung hineingerissen, so dass es in diesem Sinne nicht die Spur eines Zweifels darueber geben kann, wie die endgueltige Entscheidung des Weltkampfes ausfallen wird.” (published in Pravda on March 4, 1923. German translation in Theodor Arnold, Der Revolutionäre Krieg, 1961).

In the case of the Spanish Civil War (1936 – 1939) it started as an uprising by a military commander against a government that increasingly became dependant on Stalin and the Soviet Union. The other side then turned to Germany and Italy for military support. If republican Spain had won the war it would have resulted in the first Soviet satellite regime in Western Europe, as in the end Stalin controlled the government in Madrid.

Asia

The Chinese Civil War (1927 – 1949) was an example of Lenin’s prediction in Pravda in 1923. The Marxist-Leninist side attempted, with the aid of the Soviet Union, to take power in China. This succeeded on the mainland, but the communists failed to crush the enemy completely. The nationalists survived by retreating to Taiwan, where the Kuomintang held power for many decades. The Republic of China (Taiwan) has remained free of communist rule and it may one day be a completely independent nation. The Vietnam War (1963 – 1975) was a matter of a communist regime in the northern part of Vietnam using violence taking power in South Vietnam as well. Many observers, until the truth was revealed after 1975, believed the Vietnam war was a civil war between two factions in South Vietnam. After the war Viet Cong (or the National Liberation Front) was proven to be just that, a front for the regime in Hanoi.

Africa

The first large scale civil war in Africa was to some extent an ethnic war between 1967 and 1970 in one of the largest states on the continent. It has been followed by a large number of civil wars in Central Africa, West Africa, East Africa and North Africa. The ongoing Sudan war is both ethnic and religious. It would go too far in this short review to continue the samples. It is sufficient to conclude that Professor Schnur was correct when he called for structural research on the subject of civil war.

Conclusion

For Schnur “typology” is one important aspect; “einer ueberwölbenden ‘Typologie’ von Buergerkriegen”). Another is the case of how the war evolves (“Es handelt sich dabei um einen Ablauf, der als solcher irgendein Ende findet.”). The reason for civil war is of less interest than to follow the development and in many cases radicalization of the two sides. Finally it is important to note that Schnur discussed the possibility that civil wars would develop into a global civil war. There is reason to believe that such a global conflict started in 2001 with the terrorist attacks on New York City and Washington D.C. The essay in the 1983 collection could well be the basis for future research. There is also a warning: that the idea of total world peace brings about the necessity of total global civil war. How to solve this problem is one of the most important issues in the twentyfirst century.

To understand the ongoing Arab revolution one would be advised to study Schnur’s work.

OLIVER CROMWELL, BOGDAN KHMELNYTSKY OCH KARL X GUSTAV

February 20, 2011

I det nedanstående görs ett försök att presentera något av relationerna mellan Sverige, England och Ukraina på 1650-talet, då Sverige erövrade Skåne, Blekinge och Halland.

I oktober 1654 hade den engelske statschefen (ännu ej lordprotektor) Oliver Cromwell beordrat att en jordglob skulle sättas upp i Whitehall. Den tillverkades av Alexander Rowley, som tog 50 engelska pund för sitt arbete. Stastrådet (Council of State) fann det nödvändigt att införskaffa nya kartor, nya jordglober och även The New Atlas.

Den engelske amiralen Sir Walter Raleigh hade i sin bok History of the World rekommenderat ett engelskt imperium redan under drottning Elisabet I. I början hade protektorn riktat sin ögon mot Västindien i något som kom att kallas Western Design. Men Europa kom snart också att stå i centrum.

I början av sitt styre hade Cromwells motståndare försökt isolera honom men i september 1656 fanns det inte mindre än 32 diplomatiska sändebud i London.

De diplomatiska förhållandena mellan England och Sverige var goda under Oliver Cromwells styre i England. Det gick så långt att en protektoratets främsta poeter, Andrew Marvell, skrev hyllningsdikter till drottning Kristina.

Poeten Marvell (1621 – 1678) var född i Yorkshire och mycket berest. Han var poeten Miltons medhjälpare 1657 – 1660 i politiska ärenden. Milton var tidvis Cromwells utrikespolitiske sekreterare. Från 1659 till sin död representerade Marvell Hull i parlamentet. Under 1663 till 1665 var han på politiskt uppdrag i Danmark, Sverige och Ryssland. Ehuru puritan var han en älskare av konst och hade ett fint samt rikt natursinne.

En hyllningsdikt på latin till drottning Kristina finns bevarad:
“In eandem Reginae Sueciae transmissam

Bellipotens Virgo, septem Regina Trianum.
Christina, Arctoi lucida stella Poli;
Cernis quas meriu dura sub Casside Rugas;
Sicque Senex Armis impiger Ora fero;
Invia Factorum dum per Vestigia nitor,
Exequor ; Populi fortia Jussa Manu.
At tibi submittit frontem reverentior Umbra,
Nec sunt hi Vultus Regibus usque truces.”

Av en ren händelse råkar det finnas en hyllning till Oliver Cromwell på samma sida av den upplaga av Marvells dikter jag använt (Se The Poems and Letters of Andrew Marvell, ed. by H.M. Margoliouth, Third Edition, Volume I Poems, (1971).
“In Effigiem Oliveri Cromwell

Haec est quae Inimicos Umbra fugavit,
At sub qua Cives Otia lenta terunt.”

En särskild ambassadör till Sverige, Bulstrode Whitlocke, utnämndes av lordprotektorn i september (Kristina hade abdikerat den 16 juni 1654). Då hade i april i Uppsala en politisk allians och avtal om fri handel slutits mellan England och Sverige. Ett porträtt av den engelske statschefen sändes då till drottningen med anledning av överenskommelsen i Uppsala (var det nu är bevarat, om det finns i behåll, är för mig okänt). Ett brev i versform från Marvell till pastor Nathanael Ingelo (1621? – 1683), som medföljde Whitlocke, finns i arkiven.

I modern tid har de engelsk-svenska förbindelserna under Kristina föga uppmärksammats. Orsaken kan vara den nuvarande kulturpolitiken, som inte främjar ämnet historia vare sig i skolorna eller vid universiteten. Enligt den doktrinen är att inte mycket hänt i historien före 1932.

Om förbindelserna mellan Cromwell och Karl X Gustav finns inte mycket skrivet i modernare tid om man undantar en artikel av mig själv, publicerad i England på 1980-talet. Den behandlar tankarna på en protestantisk international som fanns vid mitten av 1600-talet.

Den engelske lordprotektorn beundrade Karl X Gustav och han betecknade England och Sverige som de två pelare på vilka europeisk protestantism vilade. Av internationalen blev intet och i London nöjde man sig med gratulatuioner då och då. Karl X Gustav gratulerades till födseln av sonen Karl (den blivande Karl XI). Det brevet var skrivet av poeten Milton i vilket den svenske kungen jämfördes med Filip av Makedonien, Alexanders den stores far. Filip fick beskedet om Alexanders födelse när han just hade besegrat illyrierna. Det gav anledning till en hänvisning till Karls seger över polackerna, som innebar att ”ett horn skurits av från vilddjurets huvud” (en referens till Bibeln).

Våren 1658 debatterades på nytt den protestantiska internationalen men utan resultat. Protektorn avled i augusti 1658. När i september 1657 England sände en medlare till Köpenhamn mellan Sverige och Danmark stod det rätt klart att vad protektorn eftersträvade var en maktbalans i Östersjöområdet.

Vid sin död hade Cromwell haft stora planer på det utrikespolitiska området. Han ville skapa ett ämbetsverk för det protestantiska Europa med en rådgivande församling för protestantisk religon och statssekreterare för Skandinavien, Schweiz, kalvinister, Tyskland men också för Turkiet, England och Västindien (The Western Design).

Hur kommer då den ukrainske hetmanen Bogdan Khmelnytsky in i bilden. Tyvärr kom dennes arkiv att förstöras i samband med den ukrainska revolution, som inleddes 1648 för att kasta av det dåvarande polska oket. Det sägs att Oliver Cromwell sände ett uppmuntrande brev till den zaporogiske hetmanen där han fick titlar som ”förstöraren av påvliga misstag” och ”påvarnas gissel”. Något sådant brev har aldrig påträffats i engelska arkiv. En polsk källa ( W. Kochowski, Krakow, 1968, Annalum Poloniae ab obitu Vladislai IV. Climacter primus ) talar om att polackerna uppbringat brevet, men att det inte var säkert att det var äkta. Det går också att hänvisa till professor Elie Borshaks ”Early Relations between England and Ukraine”, Slavonic Review, Vol. X.

För övrigt kan nämnas att någon biografi över den engelske lordprotektorn Oliver Cromwell inte har publicerats i Sverige efter andra världskriget och svenska relationer med protektoratet har inte heller stått högt på listan över forskningsområden vid svenska universitet.

SOVIETS FOMENTING CIVIL WAR IN GERMANY AND HUNGARY IN THE 1920s

February 15, 2011

Bolsheviks were victorious in the Russian civil war and similar civil wars took place in Germany, Hungary and other European countries. Late in 1918 the Soviets had concluded a secret “treaty” with the German communist leader Karl Liebknecht. A Russian army would take to the offensive to support a communist uprising in Berlin.

A similar treaty was concluded with Hungarian communist leader Bela Kun. In 1919 Soviet representative Karl Radek developed a plan for revolutionary war against Germany. Russian prisoners of war still in Germany would be offensively used.

Comintern was founded in 1919 and provided revolutionary training for communists from a large number of countries in the 1920s and the1930s. Comintern produced a number of manuals dealing with strategy and tactics of uprisings and irregular warfare (The Road to Victory, a theoretical discussion of Marxism and Revolution by Alfred Lange, The Armed Uprising by A. Neuberg).

Stalin’s saw the road to conquest of the industrialised West as proceeding via Asia. Training was later continued on a global scale by CPSU in the Soviet Union. Also Stalin and the Soviets were active in fomenting unrest in Germany between communists and social democrats (“The Comintern engineered the fight between the German communists and the social democrats…to bring Hitler to power, not because they were political perverts but because they wanted a big war in the West…They would have preferred a military conservative government. They took Hitler. He was the lesser evil”, “I myself thought at first the Russian communist were just dumb. Gradually, I realized myself that this was a very big strategy to get one of the great wars of modern times going. This took some time, but it succeeded in 1939”.

(Testimony of Dr. Karl August Wittfogel, US Senate, Washington D.C. 1951, pp. 323 f.).

SWEDEN, THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE AND THE CRIMEAN TARTARS, c 1580 – 1714 – THE REALPOLITIK OF A CHRISTIAN KINGDOM

February 14, 2011

Background

In 1656 the diplomat Claes Rålamb was sent from Stockholm to Constantinople to become the first Swedish ambassador to the Porte.

Around thirty years later a large Ottoman army invaded Austria. The Habsburg Emperor Leopold I asked Christian kingdoms in Europe to contribute in defense of Austria. In reply Sweden’s King Charlex XI (the father of Charles XII) sent one of his most trusted generals, Niels Bielke. General Bielke took part in the Battle of Mohacs in 1687, in which he joined the storming of the camp of the Grand Vizier.

When Charles XII was in exile in today’s Moldavia (then part of the Ottoman Empire) the Swedish ambassador to the Ottoman Empire was Thomas Funck.

In 2001 the Royal Armory in Stockholm exhibited ts collection of diplomatic gifts to the Swedish monarchs from the Orient (“Gifts from the Orient”). Envoys of the Tartar Khan of Crimea arrived in Sweden already in the 1580s. 0)

The Crimean Tatars are a Turkic people who inhabited the Crimean peninsula for more than seven centuries, descendants of Tatars who moved west with the Mongols and other Turkic groups (Khazars, Petchenegs, and Kipchacks) who had settled in eastern Europe as early as the 7th century. The Crimean peninsula itself was inhabited by various peoples, such as the Goths. The ancient Greeks established colonies on the coast in the 6th century B.C., and later the control of the sea ports passed on to the Romans, the Goths and eventually the Byzantines. After the invasion of Crimea by the Golden Horde forces in the 1230s, the Genoese who had been trading in the Black Sea began paying tribute to the new rulers .

Following the disintegration of the Golden Horde a Crimean Khanate was established under Haci Giray in the 1440s. The Khanate became subject to the Ottoman influence in 1475, following the capture of the Genoese ports on the Crimean coast by the Ottoman naval forces. In the next three hundred years, the Crimean Khanate remained an important semiautonomous political power in eastern Europe, continuing to raid Muscovy and making alliances with Poland, Lithuania, and Sweden. The Ottoman influence on the Crimean society was profound. Early political conflicts within the ruling Giray family were often settled by the appointment of the Khan by the Ottoman court in Istanbul, and in the 16th century Ottoman appointments became a standard policy. In 1783, Russian forces occupied the Crimea, officially ending the rule of the Khanate. In the 1950s the Crimea was transferred from Russia to Ukraine.

Early Swedish Contacts with the Crimean Khanate

The first diplomatic contacts between Sweden and the Crimean Tatars took place during the reign of King Johan III (1568 – 1592). A Tatar delegation arrived in Stockholm.

As a result, Swedish delegates Erik Falck and Sigfrid Raalamb were dispatched to Crimea to negotiate for a Swedish-Crimean Tatar alliance against Russia.

A Crimean Tatar delegation arrived in Stockholm in 1630. Chief Delegate Kamber Aga offered Sweden 40,000 men for an attack against Poland or Germany. The answer to the proposal by the Swedish King Gustavus Adolphus is in the Swedish National Archive.

Swedish delegate Benjamin Baron arrived in Crimea in 1630. He was seeking the aid of the Khan for attacking King Sigismund of Poland. Baron remained in Crimea until 1631.

Baron returned to Stockholm in 1632, accompanied by a Crimean Tatar delegation. The gifts brought by the delegation are still in the Royal Armory in Stockholm, see above (“Gåvor från Österland”, catalogue of the exhibition in Tidskriften Livrustkammaren [Journal of the Royal Armory], Stockholm 2001, pp. 60-61).

The delegation continued to Germany. It returned to Sweden in 1633. An exchange of letters between the delegation and the Swedish government can be found in the Swedish National Archive.

The next Crimean Tatar delegation arrived in Stockholm in 1637.
Contacts were continued after 1637 and during the reign of Swedish Kings Charles X Gustavus, Charles XI and Charles XII.

For the period between 1709 – 1714, the Swedish Officer Sven Lagerberg (after 1717 Major General in the Swedish Army) was military advisor to the Crimean Khan Devlet Giray. General Lagerberg’s diary kept during his stay in Crimea (_Dagbok under vistelsen hos tatarchan Dowlet-Gherey 1710 – 1711_) was published in Sweden in 1896.

Sweden, the Crimean Khanate, and Ukraine after 1709

When the Turkish Grand Vizier Mehemed Baltadshi marched out of Constantinople on 6 March 1711, leading an army of perhaps 80,000 soldiers (1), Swedish King Charles XII, in exile in Bendery (in the present republic of Moldova then part of the Ottoman empire), was greatly relieved. His representatives (2) at the court of Sultan Ahmed III had been working hard for a follow up of the Ottoman declaration of war in November 1710 against Russia. It had been the main reason for his stay in the northern outskirts of the Ottoman empire.

After Czar Peter’s defeat of the Swedish-Ukrainian armies at Poltava in June 1709 and the Swedish capitulation at Perevolochna a few days later, around 1,000 Swedish troops and the remnants of the army of Hetman Ivan Mazepa and Koshovyi Ataman Konstantin Hordienko, leader of the Zaphorozhian Kozaks, had crossed the river Dnepr and via Shvedinovka, Reshetilovka, Poltavka, Peski and Fedorovka crossed the river Bug and reached the Turkish territory.

The policy of Charles XII, Mazepa (from the spring of 1710 his successor Hetman Pylyp Orlyk) and Hordienko during the forced exile in Bendery was to find Turkish aid against Russia. The Swedish mission in Constantinople worked hard to persuade Sultan Ahmed to take military action against Czar Peter. The goal was a formal Swedish-Ukrainian-Turkish-Crimean Tartar alliance.

The Sultan promised Charles an escort of 50,000 soldiers for the safe return home of the Swedes via Poland. The strategy would be to have a Turkish army invade Poland. At the same time a Swedish army would attack Poland from the west, from Swedish Pomerania, a Swedish territory in northern Germany (3). A Turkish attack in Ukraine would draw Russian troops from Poland leaving it less defended and Peter’s ally, King Augustus II, unsupported. Allied troops would then drive Augustus from Poland and replace him with the alliance supporter and Swedish ally, King Stanislaus I, and add Poland to the coalition aiming at containing Russia. Among the European powers, England, the Netherlands and the German emperor were at best neutral. The only supporter of the alliance was France.

Constantinople was now the center of intensive intrigue. On one side Swedish, French and Ukrainian diplomats attempting to persuade Turkey to join the alliance. On the other, hand Polish (loyal to King Augustus) and Russian representantives tried to prevent it. Targets of influence were the grand vizier and other high Turkish officials.

In 1710 the Russians managed to conclude a peace treaty with Turkey. As a result Charles tried to find ways to topple the grand vizier. At work for Swedish interests in Constantinople at that time was a formidable Polish nobleman and long time admirer of Charles XII, Major General Stanislaus Poniatowski. (4) His amiable ways, intelligence and mastery of Near East intrigue made him an excellent choice. The grand vizier was later sacked and replaced with a pro-Swedish successor. Poniatowski presented Charles as a manly, impressive hero and managed to win over the Sultan’s mother, Gylnysh, and the high ladies of the harem. Also the Sultan’s lifeguard and elite troop, the Janissar Corps, was pro-Swedish admiring Charles for his military accomplishments.

French diplomats as well were active in the Ottoman capital. Their goal was to persuade the Sultan to have Turkish troops attack Austria and Poland to relieve the pressure on France. General Poniatowski and the French ambassador, Marquis Des Alleurs, frequently met to discuss policy. Swedish agents were active in Constantinople spreading propaganda pamphlets depicting Charles as a strong leader and hero.

Ukrainians also took part in the grand strategy game. On 10 May 10 1710, Charles XII had welcomed Pylyp Orlyk’s election in April as hetman in a letter of confirmation in Latin. (5) In the letter, Orlyk was lauded as the leader of “the heroic Ukrainian people, who are suffering terribly powerless under Muscovite rule.” Charles promised not to lay down arms against “Czarus Moskovia”, to seek to reestablish Kozak freedom, to safeguard the Kozaks of Ukraine and to defend them against mutual enemies.

The same year the Zaporozhian Kozaks in Bendery under Hordienko signed a treaty with Sultan Ahmed III, a “pacta conventa”. The treaty was signed in the presence of the Khan of Crimea, Devlet Geray, a representative of the Sultan and Pasha Ismail of Moldavia. Hordienko later established a new Zaporozhian fortress by the Lake Jalpuch in Moldavia.

In May 1710 a Zaporozhian delegation travelled to Constantinople to sign a formal treaty of alliance with Turkey against Russia. According to the document in the Swedish National archive (Riksarkivet) the members of the delegation were: Koshovyi Ataman Konstantin Hordienko, Colonel Dimitryi Horlenko, Judge General Kilian Dolhopoly, General Asaul Grigoryi Hertsik and Chancellor Jean Maximovicz and a Colonel Kyryl.

When the Turks in the spring of 1711 marched toward Ukraine from the southwest, Charles sent a Swedish military adviser to the Ottoman military forces in the east, Major General Karl-Gustaf Haard (6), an experienced cavalry fighter. Ismail Pasha had been detailed by the grand vizier to attack the Russian strongholds of Taganrog and Azov on the eastern shore of the Black Sea. 5,000 Ukrainians under Pylyp Orlyk, 4,000 Poles commanded by General Joseph Potocki (7) and 1,000 Swedes joined the Turkish forces.

Meanwhile in late spring 1711, 40,000 Crimean Tartars led by the son of the Crimean Khan with Swedish military adviser Major Sven Lagerberg (8) moved northward into Ukraine to join the Turkish forces advancing from the southwest. Czar Peter’s 38,000 Russian troops now faced 170,000 alliance troops. On 11 July, 1711, Czar Peter found himself trapped on the banks of the river Pruth. The Russian army was low on provisions. The horses were unfed. Czar Peter, often prone to rages, according to a pro-Russian Danish source, was running around the camp tearing his hair.

When the news reached King Charles on the evening of 12 July that the Russians under Peter were trapped, he immediately took off on horse for the Turkish camp on the River Pruth, riding for 17 hours with little rest. He arrived at 3 p.m. on 13 July with members of the Swedish staff at Bendery, Muellern (9), Feif (10), Bunge (11), von Kochen (12) and the secretary Hoegvall. Already in the Turkish camp were the Swedes Sparre (13), Daldorff (14), Zuelich (15), Lagerberg, Bousquet (16), Duvall (17) and Hierta (18).

The grand vizier and the Turkish generals had by then already signed the peace treaty with Czar Peter allowing him to retreat with his troops northward. The Turks had even provided the Russian army with provisions for one week during the retreat. There are several accounts of a meeting that afternoon between Charles, the grand vizier and the Khan. A popular, and not implausible, Swedish account reports the following conversation (translated from Swedish) (19):

Though filled with rage Charles managed to keep cool and calm when the grand vizier offered him Turkish coffee. The same day the king started back to Bendery. His first attempt to bring about an anti-Russian alliance after the battle of Poltava had failed.

But he continued the attempts to persuade Turkey to start hostilities once again during the second half of 1711 and 1712. Charles promised the Sultan that a Swedish army would attack Poland from the west if only Ahmed would send his army against Poland from the south. But problems continued. Russian and Augustus’ Polish agents in Turkey had managed to influence the grand vizier. Charles ordered the Swedish representatives in Constantinople to double their efforts to have the Grand Vizier Yussuf Pasha, removed. On 31 October 1712, he had to resign and was replaced by Soliman Pasha. The Russian representatives were thrown in jail. Once more Turkey declared war on Russia. A Turkish army was to march northward in the spring of 1713. The prospects of an alliance against Moscow seemed good. Charles sent orders to Sweden for Count Magnus Stenbock (20) to prepare the shipment of a Swedish army from the homeland across the Baltic Sea to Swedish Pomerania. But the Royal Council in Stockholm refused to fund the enterprise. Count Stenbock had to persuade the good burghers of Stockholm to lend him the money to equip and transport the Swedish troops.

Meanwhile King Augustus was busy trying to convince the Crimean Khan and Governor General Ismail Pasha in Bendery to join him and Czar Peter. Charles tried to borrow money from the Sultan to equip Swedes, Ukrainians and Poles in Moldavia. To complete the intrigues the Bendery pasha was active in persuading Poles and Ukrainians with Charles to defect. The Turks and Tartars in Moldavia instead of following the orders of the Sultan to help Charles equip his army sabotaged the efforts. In Constantinople, the grand vizier moved to isolate the Swedish embassy no doubt pressed on by the Russians and Augustus’ Poles.

In the beginning of 1713 Count Stenbock won a decisive military victory at Gadebusch in northern Germany against a Danish-Saxonian army allied to Czar Peter. The route seemed to open for the 14,000 man strong Swedish army to march eastward and meet Swedish and Turkish armies entering Poland from the south to finish Augustus and at last capture the evasive Czar Peter.

Turkish dignitaries and agents of the Crimean Khan meanwhile were active spreading the rumour that Charles was joining with his arch enemy Peter to march on Constantinople, the old dream of the Russian czars.

On 31 July 31 1713, Charles received a letter from the Sultan. The Khan and Ismail Pasha had orders to escort him to Poland. If he refused he would be forced to leave. The king barricaded himself and the staff in the Swedish camp in Bendery. During the following attack Charles was taken prisoner.

What happened in Bendery even upset the British and the ambassador of England in Constantinople, Lord Sutton, who for the first time lent support to the Swedish king. The Sultan reacted by firing the grand vizier and the Crimean Khan. They were exiled. Also the pasha of Bendery was removed. The Turkish Great Admiral Ibrahim Pasha was appointed grand vizier and he promised that the war with Russia would be commenced as soon as possible. Ibrahim mobilised 30,000 Bosnians (in present day Republic of Bosnia-Hercegovina then part of the Ottoman empire). But his enemies in Constantinople managed to convince the Sultan that Ibrahim Pasha planned to march on Constantinople with the Bosnian troops and seize power for himself. Ibrahim was arrested and executed. Ali Kumurdji was appointed grand vizier in his place. He immediately changed Turkish policy altogether negotiating peace with Poland and Russia. A peace treaty was signed with Moscow in 1713 and with Warsaw in April 1714. Augustus was recognised by Turkey as Poland’s rightful king.

The grand alliance to contain Russia sought by Charles had collapsed. In the autumn of 1714 he rode north through Europe toward Sweden returning to fight new battles until he was killed by a bullet in the trenches outside the Norwegian fortress of Fredrikshald in 1718. It is still not determined if it was an enemy bullet or an assassin’s bullet. Maybe some Swedish soldier believed that 18 years of war was enough.

NOTES

0) Gifts from the Crimean Khan at the exhibition in 2001 in Stockholm (see above) are listed here:

No. 15 Tartar saddle, Crimea, c 1660, in the collection of the Royal Armory

No 16 Saddle and holster, c 1670, (Royal Armory)

No. 17 Axe, shekan, Tartar, (Royal Armory)

No. 18 Bow and arrow quiver, Tartar, Crimea, the sixteentwenties, (Royal Armory)

No. 19 Letter and letterbags, Tartar, mid seventeenth century, (National Archive)

No. 20 Bow and arrow quiver, Tartar, Crimea, in the sixteentwenties, (Royal Armory)
No. 22 Sabre of Turkish type, kilij, Crimea?, sixteenth century

No. 30 Turkish caftan belonging to Gustaf Celsing the Elder. Gift from Sultan Ahmed III in 1711 to be worn at audiences. (Royal Armory)

No. 35 Ottoman or russian snaphauncee lock gun, seventeenth century, (Royal Armory. Before 1716 at Gripsholm Castle)

No. 37 Gun barrel, Ottoman Empire, seventeenth century. At Gripsholm Castle before 1716.

1) The army later grew to 120,000 with the addition of fresh troops from Asia and Egypt.

2) Tomas Funck (1672 – 1713) took part in the Russian campaign. Commissioned Colonel in 1710. The same year he was appointed Swedish representative in Constantinople. The delegate who had the real trust of the king was, however, replaced by General Poniatowski (see below note 4).

3) Swedish Pomerania was a German territory held at that time by Sweden. It is now part of the state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern in the United Germany.

4) Stanislaus Poniatowski (1676 – 1762), Polish count and Swedish Major General. Joined Charles XII in 1702. His son became Polish King as Stanislaus II. In 1741 he published his memoirs, Remarques d’un Seigneur polonais.

5) It is preserved in the Swedish National Archive (Riksarkivet) under “Cossacica”.

6) Karl Gustaf Haard (af Segerstad) (1674 – 1744) rose through the ranks in the Swedish army from Corporal. Joined Charles in Turkey after defeat at Poltava. Lieutenant General in 1717. Appointed Governor General of the province of the southernmost Swedish province of Scania the same year. Royal Counsel 1727. Badly wounded at Poltava and in Bendery when the King was taken prisoner.

7) Joseph Potocki (1675 – 1751), general and Polish crown hetman. Joined Stanislaus Leszcynski in 1704. Was with Charles in Bendery 1709 – 1714.

8) Sven Lagerberg (1672 – 1746), sergeant in 1690. He was commissioned Colonel in 1714, major general in 1717 and Royal Counsel. In 1723 he finally was appointed president of the Goeta Court of Appeal, Joenkoeping.

9) Gustaf Henrik von Muellern (1664 – 1719) was of German-Baltic origin. Member of the Swedish Field Chancery during the Russian campaign and joined Charles in Turkey. Made Turkish prisoner with the king, but he was released later to return to Sweden and made State Secretary of the Foreign Ministry.

10) Carsten Feif (1662 – 1739) was of Finnish descent. Joined Charles in Turkey. Headed the efforts to rearm Sweden in 1716 – 1719 to fend off a Russian invasion. President of the Office of the Paymaster General in 1723.

11) Henrik Bunge (1662 – 1737) was raised to nobility in 1710. Stayed with the king in Turkey. Baron in 1731 and was ministerial state secretary.

12) Johan Henrik von Kochen (1681 – 1758) was in the Field Chancery during the Russian campaign. Imprisoned in Bendery with the King but soon released. Personal secretary to Charles. Later ministerial secretary and Royal Counsel.

13) Axel Sparre (1652 – 1728), baron, soldier and painter. Commissioned colonel in 1699 and major general of the infantry in 1705. He fought in the Russian campaign. Joining the King in Turkey, he rose to general in 1713. In charge of the Swedish troops and civilians in Turkey after Charles had left for Sweden in 1714 and in command of the transfer to Sweden in 1714-1715. Baron in 1720 and field marshal in 1721.

14) Johan Valentin von Daldorff (? – 1715) of North German stock. Joined Swedish service in 1697 after an adventurous youth. Commissioned colonel in 1705. Was sent as military adviser by the king with the Poles who joined the Turkish army in 1711. Taken prisoner but later released and commissioned general of the cavalry in 1713. While fighting in northern Germany, he was killed in the battle of Stresow on 4 November, 1715.

15) Gustaf Zuelich (1659 – 1743) was of German origin. Swedish knighthood was conferred upon him in 1705. He was later colonel of a French mercenary Dragoon Regiment captured in its entirety by the Swedes and joined the Swedish army. Was left in Poland during the Russian campaign in command of a Swedish army in support of Joseph Potocki and King Stanislaus. Later joined Charles in Turkey. Baron in 1711 and commissioned major general, he was sent by Charles with Daldorff (see above) as military advisor along with soldiers and officers of the Swedish Royal Lifeguard to join the Ukrainian and Polish armies with the Turkish and Crimean Khanate troops in the east during the Pruth campaign. Fought with the King at the tumult at Bendery. Returning to Sweden, he was commissioned Lieutenant General in 1720. Appointed Swedish Minister to the Saxonian court, he was commissioned general in 1740 and took part in the next Russo-Swedish war at the age of 81.

16) Jean Louis Bousquet (1664 – 1747) was a French protestant who joined the Swedish service in 1706. Was with Charles in Turkey. Commissioned colonel in 1717, major general in 1741 and lieutenant general in 1743. He lived to fight the next Swedish war with Russia.

17) Axel Duvall (1667 – 1750) joined the Swedish Royal Lifeguard in 1689. Of Scottish descent he was with the king in Turkey. Took part in the tumult at Bendery. In 1715 commissioned colonel. Made major general in 1722, but he left the army the same year.

18) Lars Hierta (1668 – 1733) joined the Royal Lifeguard in 1707. Took part in the Russian campaign and fought at Poltava. Took part in the Russian campaign and fought at Poltava. Followed the King to Turkey and was involved in the tumult at Bendery. Commissioned Colonel in 1720, he later joined Hessian service.

19) See the essay “On Pruth” by Professor August Quennerstedt in Karolinska foerbundets aarsbok 1910, p. 192-193, quoting notes by von Kochen and Nordberg, a Swedish diarist.

Present in the tent of the grand vizier were probably the Swedish interpreter, Frenchman J.B. Savary and General Poniatowski. There are no records indicating the presence of the Swedes.

20) Magnus Stenbock (1665 – 1717), Count and field marshal. Commissioned second lieutenant in Dutch service in 1683, colonel in German imperial service in 1693 and Swedish colonel in 1699. Fought with King Charles in the battle of Narva 1700 (today’s Estonia) against the Russians, a Swedish victory. Promoted to Lieutenant General in 1704 and general of the infantry in 1705. The same year he was appointed Governor General of the province of Scania, Sweden’s southernmost province. Defeated invading Danish troops (Denmark was allied to Russia) at Helsingborg in 1710 in the bloodiest battle ever on the Scandinavian land. After the victory at Gadebusch (see above) he marched into Holstein on Denmark’s southern border with his army. Surrounded with his army in Toenningen he had to surrender to the Danes in 1713. He died imprisoned in Copenhagen, Denmark, under harsh prison conditions.

Sources

Among the Swedish sources not mentioned above, the most important is the essay by Professor A.Stille, Karl XII och Porten (Charles XII and Turkey) in Karl XII. Edited by S.E. Bring on the 200th Anniversary of the Death of Charles XII, Uppsala 1918.

Other sources of interest are E. Tengberg, Från Poltava till Bender(From Poltava to Bendery), Lund 1953 and the Norwegian Rolf Laache, Karl XII og hans trofaste Grev Poniatowski (Charles XII and His Faithful Count Poniatowski), Oslo 1959.

Ivar Stafsing, who was the Bulgarian Consul in Stockholm before World War II, was asked by King Boris III in 1939 to do research on what happened when Charles travelled through Bulgaria (Turkish until the 19th century). Stafsing’s material was published in 1960 under the title Kalabaliken i Bender – De gatfulla motiven i ny belysning (The Tumult in Bendery – The Mysterious Motives in a New Light).

Bertil Haggman, “Poltava’nin neticesi: Rusya’yi yenmeye yönelik isvec-ukrain-osmanli-kirim tatar stratejileri 1709 – 1714” (The Sequel to Poltava – Swedish-Ukrainian-Turkish-Crimean Khanate Strategy 1709 – 1714), Emel (Crimean Tartar Journal), Ankara, Turkey, May – July, 1997, pp. 10 – 16.

Gunnar Jarring, “Gustaf II Adolf och tatarerna på Krim” (Gustavus II Adolphus and the Crimean Tartars), Ny Militär Tidskrift, vol. 5, Stockholm 1932.

Sven Lagerbergs dagbok under vistelsen hos Tartar-Chan Dowlet Gerey 1710-1711. Utgiven av Magnus Lagerberg. Gothenburg 1896.

NY BOK AV BERTIL HÄGGMAN OM VÄRLDSINBÖRDESKRIGET, REVOLUTIONER, KUPPER, OCH FRIHETSDOKTRINEN

February 13, 2011

Nu har den kommit ut. Bertil Häggmans nya bok:

The Global Civil War – Will the West Survive? (eget förlag, 73 sidor, 2011, ISBN 9791-979219-1-6, Pris: 100 kr).

Boken kan endast beställas via denna blogg.

Presentation

Det är väl känt att kommunisterna tog makten i en rad mellan- och östeuropeiska länder under perioden 1945 till 1949 med stöd av Sovjetunionen, ett näraliggande grannland till Sverige. Försök gjordes också från kommunisternas sida att gripa makten i Finland efter oktoberrevolutionen.

Redan under det tidiga 1920-talet deklarerade bolsjevikmilitären M.V. Frunze (1885 – 1925, arméchef under inbördeskriget. Efterträdde Trotskij som folkkommissarie för krigsväsendet) i boken Jedinaja vojennaja doktrina i krasnaja armija (1921) att socialistiska stater måste vara beredda att hjälpa revolutionen utomlands. Men detta kan inte ske innan de interna förhållandena i målländerna har mognat. Väpnad intervention var aktuell först när sociala förändringar och revolutionära situationer förelåg i målländerna. Militär styrka var enligt honom en del av den politiska strategin men måste också ta hänsyn till massrörelser, klasskamp och organiserade social gruppers organisationsgrad.

Världsrevolutionen skulle baseras på tre kraftfaktorer: för det första proletariatet i de kapitalistiska länderna, sedan de revolutionära rörelserna i kolonialländerna och sist men inte mins Sovjetunionen självt. Därför måste Sovjet förs stärkas internt. Sedan skulle man vänta på att ”den stegrade revolutionära rörelsen skulle försvaga det kapitalistiska lägret och skapa förhållanden som gynnade ett avgörande angrepp från den (sovjetiska) proletära armén.”

Det världskrig, som skulle följa skilde sig från alla andra tidigare krig. Hela den kapitalistiska världen skulle omskakas med våld. Den sociala och politiska upplösningen i de kapitalistiska samhällena skulle utnyttjas av de sovjetiska styrkorna. Eftersom de flesta arméerna i de kapitalistiska länderna bestod av arbetare skulle klasskampen överföras till de väpnade styrkorna där, vilket skulle göra dem sårbara. Den fullständiga upplösningen skulle emellertid komma först efter det att fulständig seger åstadkommits. För skulle de väpnade styrkorna i de kapitalistiska länderna fullständigt krossas i fysisk mening och sedan skulle de kapitalistiska samhällena upplösas genom revolutionär åtgärder. Revolution skulle vara fulländningen av den fullständiga segern.

Det är viktigt att komma ihåg Frunzes teorier när vi kommer in på 1950-talet. I sitt tal till den tjugonde partikongress den 14 februari 1956 hade Sovjetunionens ledare Nikita Krusjtjev då återupprepat tesen att krig och revolutioner var nödvändiga för att erövra ledande kapitalistiska stater som t.ex. Förenta Staterna men att kommunistiska maktövertaganden skulle kunna ske i Frankrike och Italien via folkfronter med socialister och liberala krafter.

Den kommunistiska synen på världsherravälde var att om de inte själva organiserade ett sådants, ansåg de att någon annan skulle göra det på deras bekostnad. En annan kraft som drev kommunistregimen i Sovjetunionen var de ekonomiska och sociala misslyckandena därhemma. En utbredning av maktsfären skulle innebära väsentliga förbättringar. Kampen för världsherravälde framstod också som en möjlighet att dra uppmärksamheten från de inre svårigheterna. Segrar på andra håll kunde uppväga nederlagen på hemmafronten. Erövringar innebar att man kunde utplundra dessa och få ett temporärt tillskott av konsumtionsvaror. För det tredje skulle erövring av nya territorier ge en stor, ny reserv av arbetskraft och nya kapitalvärden: fabriker, gruvorm järnvägar och maskiner.

Ett kommunistiskt världsvälde med Moskva som huvudstad vore också en nödvändig åtgärds av defensiva skäl. Det fanns bara två alternativ: kommunism eller kapitalism. När kommunismen på allvar blivit en världsmakt (vilket skedde gradvis efter oktoberrevolutionen) blev det nödvändigt att erövra återstoden av den kapitalistiska världen. Kraftmätningen skulle kunna skjutas upp och förhalas men inte undvikas.

Världskapitalismen låg enligt sovjetisk uppfattning omkring 1950 på sitt yttersta.

Stalin sammanfattade i sitt främsta verk, Leninismens problem, problemet på följande sätt:

”Det verkliga förhållandet…är att det inte längre existerar ett världsomfattande kapitalistsystem. När nu ett sovjetland uppstått…har den världsomfattande kapitalismen upphört att finnas till. Världen har splittrats i två läger, det imperialistiska och det anti-imperialistiska lägret.” (Del I, sid. 369.)

”Vi lever inte bara i en stat utan i ett system av stater, och det är otänkbart att sovjetrepubliken skulle fortsätta att i det oändliga existera sida vid sida med imperialistiska stater. Till sist måste den ena eller den andra segra. I avvaktan på denna utveckling är det oundvikligt att en mängd fruktansvärda sammanstötningar äger rum mellan sovjetrepubliken och de borgerliga
staterna.” (Del IV, sid. 56.)

I ett valtal den 10 februari 1946 hade Stalin sagt:

”Det vore felaktigt att tro att kriget utbröt av en tillfällighet eller på grund av någon statsmans missgrepp. Fastän dessa missgrepp verkligen fanns så kom i alla fall kriget i verkligheten som den oundvikliga följden av utvecklingen av de världsekonomiska och politiska krafterna på basis av monopolistisk kapitalism”.

Erövringen av världen var således det enda medlet till självförsvar. Vilket krig – världskrig eller annat – skulle vara ett försvarskrig.

Under slutet av 1940-talet och början av 1950-talet. Sedan 1939 hade Sovjetunionen makten över ”världsöns inre kärnland” (enligt den geopolitiska nomenklatur som grundades av den brittiske geografen, statsvetaren och politikern Sir Halford Mackinder, bl.a. i boken Democratic Ideals and Reality. Detta inre kärnland hade en stor befolkning, en stark politisk organisation och en betydande industri. Efter andra världskriget sträckte det sig från Stettin söderut till Dalmatiens kust. Det innefattade hela Balkan och kom senare att hota Grekland.

I öster fanns ett flankhot mot USA och på den norra flanken stötte Sovjetunionen mot Skandinavien med huvudstyrkan mot Tyskland, vilket som centralt land var nyckeln till dert övriga Västeuropa. I Mellanöstern kunde man märka ett tryck söderut över hela den södra delen av den asiatiska kontinenten. Det var med andra ord en eurasisk fästning.

Omfattande ansträngningar gjordes, bl.a. med hjälp av stölder av amerikanska atomvapenhemligheter via spionage, att hinna kapp USA:s produktion av kärnvapen.

HISTORICAL MEMO – DID THE SWEDES CONSIDER CAPTURING TSAR PETER I IN 1706

February 13, 2011

In the Swedish National Archive (Riksarkivet) exists a memorandum from 1706 written in German by Martin Neugebauer 1). In this is suggested that the Swedes kidnap Czar Peter in a surprise commando action at the time of some Russo-Swedish battle during the Great Northern War(1700 – 1721), the czar’s son and General Alexander Menshikov 2). The habit of the czar during battles was to stay near the fighting but without lifeguards. It would be appropriate, writes wrote Neugebauer to use 100 to 150 Swedish troops led by officers who knew the czar and could identify him before the operation.

This author has not seen the original memorandum. When it becomes available from the National Archive it needs translating into Swedish and English for further evaluation. The officers suggested to lead the special operation were “Saxe” (this was probably the Italian captain in Swedish service, Adalbert de Saxe, of Hielm’s Dragoon Regiment). The other captain, ”Fock”, was probably the German Henrik Johan Fock of the Pommeranian Infantry Regiment. Further research on the officers intended to lead the special operation is needed. In the Neugebauer memo it is suggested that the Russian Czar was a physical coward in spite of his height (around 204 centimeters). Another memorandum by Martin Neugebauer (also from 1706) recommended that Charles XII attacked Moscow directly via Smolensk and described the weaknesses of Tsar Peter and his regime.

Notes

1) The German academic Martin Neugebauer (born 1670) had 1701 been hired by the czar as his son Alexis educator. Neugebauer thus had access to much vital information on the czar, his family and what was going on at the imperial court. Soon the hired teacher expressed misgivings over the conditions in Russia and after having uttered critical comments about the czar’s person Neugebauer was imprisoned. In 1703 the educator attempted to escape from Russia and came into contact with Swedish prisoners of war in Moscow. He and his new friends planned an escape as soon as possible. Neugebauer also met the Prussian officer in Russian service, Johann Baptista Schomer. He was in Russia after having served in the Saxon army. Schomer wanted his own Russian dragoon regiment but he had failed to advance. Schomer had asked to be relieved of his present duty. Together with two imprisoned Swedish officers Neugebauer and Schomer led a conspiracy to escape to the field headquarters of King Charles XII in Poland. Schomer by chance had a travel passport for several persons. The jailors were drugged with alcohol and opiates. The escapees left separately and decided to meet outside Moscow. At the end of March 1704 they travelled westward on Tartar horses via Smolensk to Poland in three weeks and safely reached the King’s camp in Heilsberg. The two Swedish officers were awarded with cash gratifications, Schomer was later appointed colonel of the Swedish Saxonian Regiment raised from Saxonian prisoners of war in Sweden.

Czar Peter was furious about the escape and wrote a personal letter to King Frederick of Prussia. The Prussian king was asked to arrest Schomer for murder claiming that one of the Russian prison guards had died of poisoning. Peter I wanted him extradited to Russia for trial and punihment. Charles interfered through the Swedish ambassador in Berlin and stopped the extradition proceedings.

Schomer was later promoted to Major General and David Neugebauer became one of King Charles’s main advisors on Russian affairs. After Poltava in 1709 he served as diplomat at the Swedish embassy in Constantinople.

2) Alexander Menshikov, Russian military leader (1672 – 1729), field marshal in 1709.

Further Reading

Professor H. Almqvist, “En avsloejad anonym. Martin Neugebauers plan till ett svenskt faelttaag mot Moskva 1706.” (An Anonymous Writer. Martin Neugebauer’s Plan For a Swedish Campaign Against Moscow 1706), Karolinska Foerbundets Aarsbok , 1939, pp- 7 – 14.

SVENSKA KYRKAN MÅSTE BE OM URSÄKT

February 12, 2011

Den äldre pietistiska rörelsen nådde Sverige vid slutet av det stora nordiska kriget (1700 – 1721) som nu högtidlighålles i Sverige 2000 – 2021. När de svensk fångarna i Ryssland återvände från västra Sibirien hade de under många år mottagit understöd från Franckestiftelserna i Halle (Tyskland).

Svenska kyrkan visade mycket litet intresse för de svenska fångarna. Hjälpen kom från stiftelserna i tyska Halle på de ekonomiska och medicinska områdena. Stiftelserna ordnade undervisning för föräldralösa svenska barn i Tobolsk.

Mot slutet av det stora nordiska kriget publicerades en pietistisk sångbok (1717) på svenska.

År 1726 lyckades statskyrkan kriminalisera pietismen som en fara för det svenska samhället och med en lagstiftning år 1735 ökade förföljelserna.

Det är nu dags för svenska kyrkan att be om ursäkt.