Duke Charles Philip (1601 – 1622) was son of Sweden’s King Charles IX and Kristina of Holstein-Gottorp. The duke was christened Philip after his grandmother’s father, Landgrave Philip I the Magnaminous of Hesse (1504 – 1567).
In 1611 the duke was elected tsar of Russia but was in 1613 replaced by Michael Romanov. Sweden had conquered the Novgorod area and planned to form a separate northwestern Russian state, as protection to prevent Russian aggression against Sweden.
In 1617 Charles Philip travelled to Germany and visited Luebeck, Hamburg, Bremen, Braunschweig, Stuttgart, Nuremberg, Dresden and Rostock returning to Sweden by ship.
Taking part in Swedish wars in the Baltic area Charles Philip died in Narva, Estonia, in 1622. He is buried in the Cathedral of Strangnas at Lake Malaren west of Stockholm. He was married to Elisabet Ribbing and after his early death a daughter was born, Elisabet Gyllenhielm.
Philip of Hesse was a champion of the Reformation. After having embraced Protestantism in 1524 he tried to reconcile Martin Luther and Ulrich Zwingli, but finally signed the Lutheran Augsburg Confession. With John Frederick I of Saxony and other rulers, Philip formed the Schmalkaldic League to uphold Protestantism against the opposition of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. Philip founded the first Protestant university in Marburg in 1527. In 1547 Emperor Charles defeated the armies of the Schmalkaldic League at Muehlberg. Philip surrendered and left prison in 1552 a broken man.