Archive for January, 2019


January 31, 2019

Washington Free Beacon’s China expert Bill Gertz on January 29, 2019 reported on US intelligence leaders warning Congress that China is a significant challenge to American security. The communist leaders of the leading opponent to the West is preparing for ideological war against the present democratic world order. Excerpts below:

“While we were sleeping in the last decade and a half, China had a remarkable rise in capabilities that are stunning,” Director of National Intelligence Dan Coats told the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence.

Major Chinese advances were the result of large-scale theft of American technology and other intellectual property, and inserting Chinese agents in U.S. laboratories to steal know-how for China. The theft ranged from automobile manufacturing to sophisticated software to military-related research and development information, Coats said.

Globally, China under President Xi Jinping is spreading its system in the developing world through an economic program called the Belt and Road Initiative.

“Rule of law, international norms, and fairness in trade and international engagements is not the Chinese model.”

“Chinese leaders will increasingly seek to assert China’s model of authoritarian capitalism as an alternative.”

…China will try to launch a program to reform the global governance system that Coats forecast will produce increased Chinese activism internationally and promote “a Chinese worldview that links China’s domestic vision to its international vision.”

The Chinese are seeking to block international criticism of the communist system, and also to erode norms, such as the idea that the international community has a legitimate role in scrutinizing human rights abuses. China also is seeking to narrow the definition of human rights based on economic standards as part of the effort.

[In 2011 under Obama it sounded differently]

”…my greatest concern, though, does not lie with a nation-state posing a threat to us as much as it is in the area of terrorism,” said then chief Clapper who through public statements revealed himself to be a…political partisan [of the left] after leaving office after the administration of President Barack Obama.

Coats said U.S. intelligence officials have been alerting American businesses to the Chinese dangers.

FBI Director Christopher Wray…testified:

“The Chinese counterintelligence threat is more deep, more diverse, more vexing, more challenging, more comprehensive, and more concerning than any counterintelligence threat I can think of,”….

Wray said the American people are beginning to wake up to Beijing’s control over supposedly private Chinese businesses.

“The lines between the Chinese government and Chinese Communist Party are blurred if not totally erased,” Wray said. “The lines between the Chinese government and state-owned enterprises, the same.”

Defense Intelligence Agency Director Lt. Gen. Robert Ashley said Chinese products, such as semiconductors or microchips, pose a threat to the military supply chain used to build weapons systems. DIA is working to make sure weapons are not built with Chinese products purchased by U.S. suppliers that could pose a security risk of sabotage or remote hacking.

On Huawei, Ashley said the company is not as independent as other international companies, and cannot decide for itself whether to become a private firm or state-controlled company.

“That decision does not lie with Huawei,” he said. “It lies with the [Chinese Communist Party]; it lies with Xi Jinping in the way that they are starting to centralize greater the management of those businesses.”

The DIA director described the Chinese system as “authoritarian capitalism” with the government and Party controlling Chinese companies and requiring they provide business and other information to Beijing.

Other threats highlighted by the intelligence leaders during the annual threat briefing include:

The danger from weapons of mass destruction will grow in 2019, especially the use of chemical arms.

China, Russia, Iran, and North Korea are increasingly using cyber attacks to “threaten both minds and machines” to steal information and target infrastructure.

North Korea remains a threat and is unlikely to give up its nuclear arms, despite talks on denuclearization.

Iran will threaten U.S. interests in 2019 based on Tehran’s regional ambitions and improved military capabilities.

China and Russia are training and equipping military space forces and fielding new antisatellite (ASAT) weapons to target American satellites while pushing for global agreements banning space weapons.

Chinese cyber attacks are a major threat and could be used for temporary disruption of critical infrastructure, such as disrupting a natural gas pipeline for days to weeks.

Russia remains a capable U.S. adversary and is developing new strategic and conventional weapons.

Iran currently has not renewed development of nuclear weapons but Iranian officials have publicly threatened to reverse some of the constraints of the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action limiting its nuclear programs.

Iran continues to develop long-range missiles.

China will continue building up its military maritime presence in the South China and will continue to pressure Taiwan into accepting Beijing’s claims on the island.

Coats: Xi removed one of the few checks on his power in March 2018 by eliminating presidential term limits. The Party also increased control over the economy and society by tightening legal and media controls, marginalizing independent voices, and intensifying repression of Muslims, Christians and other religious minorities.

Perhaps “millions” of ethnic Uighurs are being held in detention camps as part of the repression.

China also is increasing the use of technology for repression through facial recognition, biometrics, and vehicle GPS tracking to “bolster its apparatus of domestic monitoring and control,” Coats stated.

One significant disclosure by Coats is China’s global ambitions. By contrast, U.S. intelligence analysts for many years in the past insisted China had no hegemonic objectives beyond Asia.

“We assess that China’s leaders will try to extend the country’s global economic, political, and military reach while using China’s military capabilities and overseas infrastructure and energy investments under the Belt and Road Initiative to diminish U.S. influence,” Coats said.

Militarily, China is planning additional military bases and access agreements beyond its lone overseas military base on the Horn of Africa at Djibouti. The Chinese are exploring bases, support facilities, or access agreements in Africa, Europe, Oceania, Southeast Asia, and South Asia.

China also is using its commercial development and military ties to expand its military reach globally.

“Successful implementation of the Belt and Road Initiative could facilitate PLA access to dozens of additional ports and airports and significantly expand China’s penetration of the economies and political systems of participating countries,” Coats stated.

Comment: In addition to these warnings in the US Congress foreign policy experts Graham Allison and Dimitri. K. Simes in a Wall Street Journal article in January 2019 explained according to National Interest journal that an entente between Moscow and Beijing is growing. Excerpts below:

…the piece in the Wall Street Journal …[is] titled “A Sino-Russian Entente Threatens America” explains that American foreign policy is inadvertently prompting the two great powers to collaborate more closely. “This grand alignment of the aggrieved has been moving from the realm of the hypothetical toward what could soon be a geostrategic fact. Beijing and Moscow are drawing closer together to meet what each sees as the `American threat.’” In conclusion, Allison and Simes state, “a sound U.S. global strategy would combine greater realism in recognizing the threat of a Beijing-Moscow alliance, and greater imagination in creating a coalition of nations to meet it.”

It is important here to point out that it is the United States that is at last reacting to the growing threats. China has since the collapse of the Soviet Union taken over the role as leading communist empire. The regime in Beijing also before 1991 had global aspirations. These were of a different kind as the plan was to encircle the cities (the West) from the Third World. China was then supporting communist inspired uprisings of what was called ”the Asian, African and Latin American peoples”.

Numbers, so the Maoist rulers, were to decide in the long run, the countryside would encircle the West. This was the Communist Chinese version of ”Demography is Destiny”. The strategy failed and China is now instead using its economic and military power to challenge the West using ”authoritarian capitalism” as a weapon.


January 30, 2019

Washington Free Beacon on January 28, 2019, lauded the indictments of Chinese company Huawei and cited comments by Senator Tom Cotton, Republican from Arkansas. Excerpts below:

Senator Tom Cotton (R., Ark.) praised the Justice Department’s formal charges against Chinese telecom giant Huawei and its chief financial officer on Monday, saying they gave the U.S. more information about the company’s “campaign of theft and economic sabotage against America.”

Huawei and its CFO, Meng Wanzhou, were charged with crimes that included stealing trade secrets, obstruction of justice, and bank fraud by evading sanctions against Iran…

Cotton has played a leading role in the U.S. Senate in calling attention to Huawei’s skirting of sanctions and role in Chinese spying. U.S. intelligence agencies have linked Huawei to Chinese military and intelligence services, and the Washington Free Beacon reported the telecom giant has been targeted as part of a wider effort by the Trump administration to press China in trade negotiations and over its technology theft.

Cotton: ”Huawei has played a key role in spreading China’s spying capabilities around the world.”

Cotton said Congress should act by passing his bill, the Telecommunications Denial Order Enforcement Act.

Meng was arrested on Dec. 1 in Canada at the request of American prosecutors.

Comment: ”How China’s Economic Aggression Threatens the Technologies and Intellectual Property of the United States and the World” is a report by White House Office of Trade and Manufacturing Policy of June 2018.
In the report is pointed out:

”Physical theft through economic espionage by company insiders or others who have trusted access to trade secrets and confidential business information provides China with a significant means to acquire U.S. technologies and intellectual property. In describing China’s use of economic espionage as part of a broader strategy to acquire U.S. technology companies, the U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission observes:

China appears to be conducting a campaign of commercial espionage against U.S. companies involving…human infiltration to systematically penetrate the information systems of U.S. companies to steal their intellectual property, devalue them, and acquire them at dramatically reduced prices. The indictment is an opportunity for US to find out more about the deceitful practices of the large Chinese telecom company.

Free Beacon in 2018 published a report by China expert Bill Gertz on how China is seeking global hegemony. Gertz desribed the testimony in Congress on how China’s large-scale military buildup, regional coercion, and economic aggression are part of plan for global domination.

The nuclear and conventional weapons buildup, militarization of islets in the South China Sea and global infrastructure investments aimed at controlling nations are signs Beijing has emerged as America’s most significant national security challenge, a panel of specialists told a hearing of the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence.

“This supremacy is the heart of the ‘China Dream.’ China’s arsenal in this campaign for supremacy includes economic, informational, political, and military warfare.”

“The battle to hold off China starts in the Taiwan Strait”

“Previous attempts to appease China failed to improve our bilateral relations,” he said. “In fact, China has only become emboldened and may now be the preeminent threat to American security, our economy, and our values.”

U.S. policies toward China since economic engagement began in the 1980s were guided by early claims China posed no threat. Successive administrations advocated strengthening China through trade and investment in the hope the communist system would eventually reform.

President Trump, however, directed a major shift in U.S. policy toward China by recognizing Beijing as “revisionist” power that threatens U.S. security and economic interests.

Trump has pressured China on its trade and technology theft and recently announced plans to impose tariffs on Chinese goods.

Curbs on Chinese investment in national security-related purchases also are planned.

Dan Blumenthal, a China expert at the American Enterprise Institute, testified that many China hands were wrong about China’s rise in the past.

Blumenthal called for directly confronting the Chinese Communist Party and its weaknesses.

“They constantly come at us with political warfare, information campaigns, propaganda. We let them off the hook,” he said, adding that the Chinese public should be given more robust information about what the ruling party is doing.

China’s ruling party is not simply seeking to preserve its hold on power but is “a Leninist party overseeing a continental empire that’s going to sea,” Blumenthal said.

China is expanding into the Pacific and also advancing in and around the Indian Ocean, using its commercial Belt and Road investment program as a “cash-for-access deal” in many locations.

“From a technological standpoint, the PRC has quickly achieved parity with U.S. Navy standards and capacities for warship and submarine production,” [one expert said].

“If some currently unintended event does not provoke a military confrontation before then, we have until 2020—the deadline that [Chinese supreme leader] Xi Jinping has given the [People’s Liberation Army] to be ready to invade Taiwan.

From that point on, we can expect China to strike.”

China has begun tightening a noose around Taiwan, recently holding large-scale attack exercises in the Taiwan Strait and flying bombers and strike aircraft around the island.

Chinese air forces also currently are threatening Japan’s Senkaku islands and are militarizing disputed islands in the South China Sea with missiles and aircraft.

Beijing also announced plans to develop new nuclear-capable long-range bombers—another indicator of global power projection plans.

In addition to its growing military power, China is using political warfare capabilities under a doctrine described as “uniting with friends and disintegrating enemies,”

“In any conflict within the Indo-Pacific region or globally, the PRC’s fight for public opinion will be the PRC’s second battlefield, on which it will wage a wide range of political warfare operations.”

The information warfare will employ strategic psychological operations to promote the narratives of events, actions, and policies with the goal of controlling the Chinese public and influencing policies of both friends and foes.

[Another expert] said the Chinese military also is developing space warfare capabilities, including plans to use the moon as a base.

“China’s space control ambitions extend to achieving eventual control of the earth-moon system.”

On non-military power, China plans to use its financial power in a program called Belt and Road Initiative…It will produce a “debt trap” for developing states that can be coerced into cooperating China’s strategic aims.

The United States needs a comprehensive long-term strategy aimed at countering the Chinese threat. “Such a strategy must include a military, economic, and ally focus, and a diplomatic, political, and informational focus.”

It is clear from these hearings that the United States need a fundamental shift in dealing with China and recognize Beijing as the main threat to U.S. security. Strategic communications need to be strengthened to counter Chinese information warfare. Closer ties to Taiwan is another must.

It is time after the failures of the Obama administration that the United States returns to its role as a maritime power that cooperates with allies.

An improvement in the field of forward defense against China has started during the Trump administration. China is now the leading challenger to the West. Two other Eurasian empires are also challenging the United States and all of the West: Russia and Iran.


January 25, 2019

Fox News on January 24, 2019, reeported on prospects for the liberation of Venezuela from socialist oppression. Excerpts below:

The South American country is navigating uncharted political waters after congress chief Juan Guiado declared himself interim head of state on … and demanded democracy and free elections – quickly garnering the diplomatic backing of the United States. Maduro however has been backed by the likes of Russia and China.

“The citizens of Venezuela have suffered for too long at the hands of the illegitimate Maduro regime,” President Donald Trump said in a tweet officially recognizing Guaido as the Interim President of Venezuela on January 23.

“The people of Venezuela have courageously spoken against Maduro and his regime and demand freedom and the rule of law,” he said in a White House statement.

“The people of Venezuela are bravely working for a free future for their country,” German government spokesman Steffen Seibert tweeted on Thursday. “This now requires a political process that results in free and credible elections.”

Washington said it would ignore an order to remove its diplomats in 72 hours.

Russia has been propping up Maduro with arms deliveries and loans. Maduro visited Moscow in December, seeking Russia’s political and financial support. Over the last decade, China has given Venezuela $65 billion in loans, cash, and investment. Venezuela owes more than $20 billion.

The European Union called for Venezuelans authorities to respect the “civil rights, freedom and safety” of Guaido, but stopped short of recognizing him as interim president.

“On 23 January, the people of Venezuela have massively called for democracy and the possibility to freely determine their own destiny. These voices cannot be ignored,” EU foreign policy chief Federica Mogherni said in a statement.

“The EU strongly calls for the start of an immediate political process leading to free and credible elections, in conformity with the constitutional order.”

Tensions began ramping up earlier this month as Maduro took the oath of office for a second six-year term won in an election in May 2018 that many in the region contend was not free or fair because his strongest opponents were barred from running.

The assault on Maduro’s rule came after large crowds gathered in Caracas waving flags and chanting “Get out, Maduro!” in what was the biggest demonstration since a wave of unrest that left more than 120 dead in 2017.

Maduro has relied extensively on the military to maintain power amid the country’s growing economic hardships and humanitarian crisis.

Comment: Venezuela is yet another example of the catastrophic history of socialism in Latin America. The continent’s non-socialist are all supporting the new rival president in the oil rich country. Strong support is also coming from Great Britain and Canada.

As usual Maduro’s dictatorship is supported by the three main challengers of the West: China, Russia, and Iran. Russian influence in Venezuela is growing and may be time for the United States to rethink the Monroe Doctrine of 1823 that warns European countries to interfere in the western hemisphere.

National security adviser John Bolton said on January 24 that the White House is focused on “disconnecting” Venezuelan dictator Nicolas Maduro from his sources of revenue.

“We think consistent with our recognition of Juan Guaido as the constitutional interim president of Venezuela that those revenues should go to the legitimate government,” Bolton told reporters at the White House.

“We’re looking at a lot of different things we have to do, but that’s in the process. We’re speaking with governments in this hemisphere, which overwhelmingly recognize the new constitutional government,” Bolton continued.

Bolton said that Vice President Mike Pence spoke to President Guaido the evening before the recognition statement made by the president. US officials had been in touch with Guaido through the American Embassy in Caracas and that
“we’re working really around the clock here to do what we can to strengthen the new government.”

“The fact is that Venezuela is in our hemisphere, I think we have a special responsibility here, and I think the president feels very strongly about it,” Bolton said.

Meanwhile, Secretary of State Mike Pompeo warned Maduro also on January 24 not to use force against mass demonstrations and urged international support for Guaido.

“The time for debate is done. The regime of former president Nicolas Maduro is illegitimate,” Pompeo said at a special meeting of the Organization of American States.

“His regime is morally bankrupt, it’s economically incompetent, and it is profoundly corrupt, and it is undemocratic to the core,” he added.

“I reiterate our warning about any decision by remnant elements of the Maduro regime to use violence to repress the peaceful democratic transition,” said Pompeo, who urged all members of the OAS to recognize Guaido.


January 18, 2019

Det svenska valet 2018 har lett till en januariöverenskommelse (JÖ) som ger inflytande till Vänsterpartiet (tidigare Sveriges kommunistiska parti). Det partiet tog emot stora summor i understöd från Moskva från 1917 till 1990. Uppgifterna nedan är hämtade ur den danska boken ”Guldet fra Moskva – Finansieringen af de nordiske kommunistpartier 1917 – 1990” (Forum, Köpenhamn, 2001, 356 sidor).

Guldet som flöt från Moskva efter andra världskriget livsviktigt för dåvarande och nuvarande stödpartiet till (s) efter andra världskriget:

1951 20 000 US dollar
1952 25 000 US dollar
1953 25 000 US dollar
1954 55 000 US dollar
1955 30 000 US dollar
1956 70 000 US dollar
1957 40 000 US dollar
1958 60 000 US dollar
1959 70 000 US dollar
1960 70 000 US dollar
1961 70 000 US dollar
1962 70 000 US dollar
1963 150 000 US dollar

I boken återges delar av en utskrift av protokoll nr. 8 från möte med det sovjetiska kommunistpartiets centralkommittés presidium den 20 maj 1953:

Punkt 2. Det anses vara ändamålsenligt att ge ekonomisk hjälp till följande kommunistpartier från medlen i Den internationella fackföreningsfonden:

Finlands kommunistparti 400 000 US dollar, Greklands kommunistparti 75 000 US dollar, Sveriges kommunistparti 25 000 US dollar, Norges kommunistparti 25 000 US dollar, Syriens och Libanons kommunistparti 25 000 US dollar, Australiens kommunistparti 25 000 US dollar och Österrikes kommunistparti 400 000 US dollar (beloppet till det österrikiska kommunistpartiet skulle utbetalas i schilling).

Informationen om guldflödet från Moskva till systerpartierna runt om i världen har hämtats från dokument som blev tillgängliga efter Sovjetunionens kollaps år 1991.


January 14, 2019

Fox News on January 11, 2019 reported on Secretary of State Mike Pompeo’s speech in Cairo as a fundamental turning point for U.S. foreign policy. Excerpts below:

Pompeo said, “Now comes the real new beginning” – a jibe at the speech Obama gave in Cairo early in 2009, in which he essentially apologized for American Middle East policy going back decades in remarks titled “A New Beginning.”

Pompeo’s view is unequivocal and crystal clear: “America is a force for good in the Middle East.” Expect our adversaries abroad and snowflakes at home to be mighty upset at this moral clarity and self-confidence from the greatest, freest country on Earth. Our real allies will love it.

Pompeo’s speech had three watershed components:

First, Pompeo made it clear that the chief focus of U.S. policy in the Middle East is thwarting Iran’s dangerous and tyrannical ambitions. While violent jihadist groups like ISIS and Al Qaeda still exist and deserve our attention, they are now a lesser threat.

Second, Pompeo specifically called out “radical Islamism” and condemned Obama for not doing so. This is a refinement and extension of President Trump’s condemnation of “radical Islamic terrorism,” which is the tactic that Islamists use when they go violent.

In contrast to failed efforts to either spread American democracy or apologize for it, this means we can rally all of those opposed to radical Islamism, including monarchies and imperfect republics across the Middle East that oppose Islamist theocracy. It means we can be clear about opposing not only terrorists like Al Qaeda, but Islamist political groups like the Muslim Brotherhood.

Third, Pompeo outlined the Trump administration’s rigorous efforts at diplomacy across the Middle East, which have contributed to radical change and unprecedented cooperation. Pompeo disclosed that “Egypt, Oman, Kuwait and Jordan have all been instrumental in thwarting Iran’s efforts to evade sanctions,” and lauded assistance from Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates (UAE).

He added that “private companies in France, Germany, Britain and elsewhere have calculated that enriching themselves through work with the regime is bad for business” – a gentle and much-deserved slap at the governments of those fading allies that have actively opposed getting tough on Iran.

Finally but crucially, Pompeo included a cautionary principle regarding what the U.S. is willing to do in the Middle East. Remarking about U.S. support he said: “But ‘assist’ is the key word. We ask every peace-loving nation of the Middle East to shoulder new responsibilities for defeating Islamist extremism.”

This is the fundamental essence of “America First.” [USA] will not apologize for America, we will stand up for our interests, and we will cooperate with our allies as long as they are willing to share the burden of preserving freedom.

Comment: It has long been clear that there will be no peace in the Middle East until Iran stops its support for terrorism in the region. Islamic empires have traditionally been closed societies that use clandestine operations and covert actions to reach their goals. The governing elite, as in today’s Iran, always feared treachery. There were no codes of law and no ethical guidelines in the affairs of state. The present Iran is an heir to the Islamized Persian empire where there were no ideas of citizenship or a common public secular law. Those who hold power in Tehran in 2019 came to power in radical strife and conflict and is seeking influence and conquest using irregular warfare and subversion.


January 3, 2019

During the 1960s and 1970s anticommunism was reflected in architecture and urban planning in the South Korean capital of Seoul. The Federation of Artistic and Cultural Organizations of Korea (FACOK) was founded with the Korean Institute of Architects as a member of FACOK.

The Freedom Center is one example of the buildings constructed in the 1960s. Other examples are statues of national war heroes (Yi Sun Sin), and the War Memorial. There were plans to fortify Seoul and coastal development plans for the Han River and south of the river.

Yi Sun Sin (1545 – 1598) was a naval commander during the Japanese invasions of Joseon (Korea) that lasted from 1592 to 1598. The invasion is also known as the Seven Year War, or the Imjin War. The official name of Yi’s title was “naval commander of the three provinces” as he was in charge of navies of Chungcheong, Jeolla, and Gyeongsang provinces. He is known for his exceptional leadership and naval strategies which resulted in victories in all his twenty three battles. Although he was arrested and relegated for a while, he was soon restored to lead Joseon’s navy till the last battle.

The War Memorial of Korea, located in Yongsan-gu, Seoul, exhibits and preserve materials related to the Korean War and serves as a national moral educational venue. It was established to commemorate the noble sacrifice of patriotic martyrs by the War Memorial Service Korea Society on June 10, 1994. The museum houses approximately 33,000 artifacts with about 10,000 on display at an indoor and outside exhibition halls.

There are six separate indoor halls, including Expeditionary Forces Room, Patriotic Memorial Room, War History Room, 6•25 Korean War Room, Development Hall and Large Machinery Room. The outdoor exhibition hall showcases large-sized weapons. Visitors of all ages from children to adults can also participate in 20 various educational programs and diverse cultural events such as military music and honor guard events, drawing contest, cultural event and more. The character of War Memorial of Korea is ‘Mudori’ featuring a helmet symbolizing the protection of the nation and a bay leaf meaning peace.

The total area of the War Memorial is 116,793m² with the exhibition halls 20,360m² .

In the Memorial Hall there is an exhibition hall dedicated to the memory of patriots involved in past war efforts. The place presents sculptures, reliefs, and wall paintings under the theme of overcoming hardship, and working towards the unity, prosperity and eternity of the nation.

There is also a war history from prehistoric era to the Japanese colonial period. Military remains, relics, and documents are on display as well. Among them are war & victory records, ammunition, the Turtle Ship (and other military vessels from the Joseon Dynasty), fortress models, and more.

The background of the Korean War is presented with the progression of the war and how a truce was eventually established. Exhibits also display ammunition used by hostile and friendly forces, information and artifacts from people displaced by the war, and information on major battles.

The role of the expeditionary forces was important. Information in this exhibit describes the Vietnam War and the implication of Korean troops dispatched in Vietnam. Other information explains the activities Korean troops were mainly engaged in during the Vietnam War, and the tactics of the Viet Cong.

The ROK Armed Forces part presents the progression of the Korean Army, Navy, Air Force and Marine Corps from the time of their inception till today.

The South Korean defense industry is presented with replicas of state-of-the-art weapons that are produced by domestic companies. Items include fighters, submarines, destroyers, and communication apparatuses.

Around 110 pieces of large military equipments/symbols are on display. They include Korean War sculptures, the Statue of Brethren, the Statue of King Gwanggaeto, AH-2, T-34 of the North, US B-52 and others.


January 2, 2019

Korean architect Kim Swoo-geun (1931 – 1986), born in Chongjin, North Hamgyong (today’s North Korea), settled in Seoul in 1943.

He spent most of his youth in the Bukchon area, marked by a concentration of narrow alleys. Many say that this period impacted his design philosophies in later years, marked by mysteriously yet organically twisted spaces.

Kim enrolled in the Architecture College of Seoul National University in 1950, but due to the 1950-53 Korean War, he dropped out and moved to Japan. There, he studied architecture at the Architecture College of Tokyo University of the Arts.

He came back to Korea in 1960, and since then, designed about 200 important structures across the country. They include Seoul Olympic Stadium (in Jamsil, southern Seoul), Freedom Center (in Namsan, central Seoul), Kyungdong Presbyterian Church (in Jangchung-dong, central Seoul), the South Korean ambassador’s residence in Washington, D.C., and Chuncheon Children’s Hall (Chuncheon, Gangwon), just to name a few.

Namsan Freedom Center Seunggonggwan Hall was opened as a part of South Korean anticommunist state policy during the era of on October 15th, 1966. On the mark stone, ex-President Park Jeong-heui’s own handwriting is carved. The Seunggonggwan Hall is located in Korea Freedom Federation in Namsan Mountain.

It was financed by the South Korean government and Korea ASEA Anti-communism Federation. Opened in September 1962, the groundbreaking ceremony of Freedom Center had about 1,000 attendants both citizens and leading government officials .

Within the Freedom Center, there was an International Freedom Hall, a main hall, International Conference Room, Freedom Plaza, memorial hall, a library, PR center, and an anticommunism education institute. Anticommunist education, anti-communist theory, tactics and strategy, and anticommunist information was central government policy.

The Seunggonggwan Hall exhibited various weapons and war photos. Victory-Over-Communism was taught in the Seunggong School.

The South Korean government supported the Korea Anti-communism Federation to promote the policy of anticommunism, and this federation extended the propaganda activities and education and enlightenment activities to stimulate the awareness of anti-communism and establishment of the theory of anti-communism, and through the reinforcement of anti-communism internationally, it tried to gain the support in international society.

The building is now used for other purposes but there is an ”Anti-Communist Exhibition Hall” in the building.

Center address: Jangchungdong 2-ga, Jung-gu, Seoul