Archive for the ‘Uncategorized’ Category

NEW US NATIONAL DEFENSE STRATEGY: FOCUS ON GREAT POWER COMPETITION

January 20, 2018

Fox News on January 19, 2018 reported on the new National Defense Strategy of the United States. Excerpts below:

US Defense Secretary Jim Mattis warned that the U.S. military’s advantage over Russia and China is “eroding,” when he unveiled the new US National Defense Strategy….The document also says that ISIS no longer remains a top threat.

“Great power competition, not terrorism, is now the primary focus of U.S. national security,” Mattis said. “We face growing threats from revisionist powers as different as China and Russia, nations that seek to create a world consistent with their authoritarian models.”

Mattis named the rogue regimes in North Korea and Iran as top threats as well. But the strategy does not ignore the ability of terrorist groups to persist and evolve. ISIS has largely been defeated in Iraq and Syria, but Mattis warned the group will keep trying to reestablish itself and make a comeback like Hezbollah and Al Qaeda.

He warned that America’s ability to respond to threats has diminished.

He also said, “We will modernize key capabilities, recognizing we cannot expect success fighting tomorrow’s conflicts with yesterday’s weapons or equipment.”

Mattis said the modernization of China’s military over the past two decades as well as Russia’s advantages coupled with the U.S fighting its longest war in the nation’s history have led to loss of a competitive advantage.

“To those who would threaten America’s experiment in democracy: if you challenge us, it will be your longest and worst day,” he warned.

This is the first national defense strategy in 10 years. The classified version of the strategy is five times bigger than the 11-page unclassified report released today.

Comment: This is good news not only for the United States but for the West as a whole. The great power threat of China and Russia has during the period 2008 to 2016 been underestimated by the American administration of Obama.

This is not the first time in US history. During World War Two there was a vast deception that kept Stalin’s henchmen on American federal payroll. This resulted in a sabotaged foreign policy in favor of the Soviet Union. Presidential aides such as Lauchlin Currie and Harry Hopkins exerted pro-communist influence on US policy. Massive breaches of internal security and betrayal of free-world interests were ignored by the US administrations. Countless American officials turned a blind eye to the penetration problem. Some of the worst betrayals was in the atomic weapons area which resulted in the Soviets being able to develop the atomic bomb.

Important is also the the United States will continue to defend against terrorist movements. With ISIS defeated in Iraq and Syria there could be new emerging threats from Hezbollah and Al Qaeda.

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THE GREATEST COLD WARRIOR – A NEW BOOK BY MAX BOOT

January 17, 2018

Washington Times on January 16, 2018 published a review of Max Boots latest book: The Road Not Taken: Edward Lansdale and the American Tragedy in Vietnam, Liveright, US dollars 35.00, 768 pages. Excerpts from the review by Gary Anderson below:

Edward Lansdale is probably the greatest cold warrior that most Americans have never heard of. Max Boot has written a fascinating account of how this California college humorist, frat boy and advertising executive evolved into a counterinsurgency expert before the term was even coined. He was a virtual shadow American proconsul in both the Philippines and South Vietnam in the 1950s wisely advising both Philippine President Ramon Magsaysay and South Vietnamese leader No Dinh Diem on how to deal with Communist inspired insurgencies.

His success in the Philippines was spectacular and made his reputation. In Vietnam he was originally successful, but saw his influence wane for reasons beyond his control. However, he became the father of today’s American counterinsurgency doctrine even though few American advisers have been able to replicate his skill in influencing foreign leaders.

Max Boot has become one of the master chroniclers of American counterinsurgency efforts, and his biography of Mr. Lansdale is a tribute to a guy who recognized the threat of insurgency in a post-World War II environment where most American leaders saw only brute force as a solution to any political-military problem.

Mr. Lansdale argued that success was dependent on getting the people to stop supporting the insurgents, and have some hope that the government was a better alternative. Eliminating insurgents militarily was only a secondary part of the Lansdale approach. It worked in the Philippines because Mr. Lansdale developed a unique brand of trust with that nation’s leader.

When he was asked to do the same things in South Vietnam, Mr. Lansdale was initially successful in developing a personal rapport with Prime Minister Diem. However, Mr. Lansdale eventually lost influence with Mr. Diem due to the machinations of Mr. Diem’s brother No Diem Nhu and his manipulative wife Madam Nhu.

Mr. Boot also points out that the differences in culture and language worked against Lansdale in Vietnam — he never developed a facility for foreign languages — but he was still able to develop a close personal relationship with Diem. Unlike the island archipelago of the Philippines, South Vietnam’s insurgents had sanctuary in North Vietnam and China that would prove fatal to the south in the end.

Mr. Lansdale eventually became an Air Force major general and Pentagon official; but he was never able to replicate the success inside the Washington Beltway accomplished in Asia, and he watched the American tragedy in Vietnam unfold despite several attempts to change policy on trips to Saigon before it fell to the Communists.

Mr. Lansdale’s ability to develop personal relationships with foreign leaders and guide their policy-making has never been fully replicated by his modern American adviser successors in fighting insurgencies in Iraq and Afghanistan.

His philosophy of attempting to separate the civilian population from the insurgents has now been codified in U.S. counterinsurgency doctrine. He was a firm believer that American constitutional democracy was far superior to the kind of authoritarianism that the Communists offered and believed that local forces, not Americans, should lead the fight.

This book should be read in Baghdad and Kabul, not only by Americans, but by local leaders.

Gary Anderson is a retired Marine Corps colonel who served as a civilian adviser in Iraq and Afghanistan.

FIVE TIMES THE SPEED OF SOUND – BOEING’S NEW HYPERSONIC STRIKE AIRCRAFT

January 17, 2018

Fox News on January 15, 2018, reported on Boeing’s new hypersonic strike aircraft. Excerpts below:

It happened at an event in Orlando, Florida, but it’s only a concept design for now.

The new aircraft will be a direct competitor to Lockheed martin’s upcoming SR-72.

These rival firms are racing to create a hypersonic aircraft that’s capable of stealthy recon assignments – and strike missions, too.

…Boeing’s hypersonics chief described how Boeing was planning a two-step development process for the new war plane.

The first stage would involve flight tests of an “F16-sized, single-engine” precursor vehicle that acts as a “proof of concept”.

The second stage is the creation of a “twin-engine, full-scale operational vehicle” that has roughly similar dimensions to the 107-foot-long SR-71.

Boeing’s end goal is an aircraft that can travel at speeds beyond Mach 5 – that’s five times the speed of sound.

The tricky part is that the SR-71 replacement needs to to be able to take off, accelerate, slow down and land all on its own – just like the original 1964 model.

Boeing is looking at using a conventional turbojet to hit Mach 3, then switching to a different configuration to boost beyond Mach 5.

DET BLIR ETT NYTT PSYKOLOGISKT FÖRSVAR I SVERIGE MEN ÄR DET FÖR SENT

January 15, 2018

I januari 2014 publicerade Kristianstadsbladet en insändare av författaren Bertil Häggman, där han beklagade nedrustningen av det civila psykologiska försvaret sedan 2006. Ett besök sommaren 2013 visade att Myndigheten för samhällsskydd och beredskaps (MSB) hemsida inte kunde presentera någon ny forskning på området. MSB har haft huvudansvaret under perioden efter det kalla krigets slut 1991. Allt man kunde finna var hänvisningar till äldre skrifter från det kalla kriget.

Ett visst uppvaknande skedde under 2014 och Statskontoret fick i uppdrag att utreda det psykologiska försvaret. Under 2017 kom så utredningsrapport 2017:5 (”Myndigheternas arbete med psykologiskt försvar”) där det konstaterades att de flesta statliga myndigheter hade verksamheter som är av betydelse för ett modernt psykologiskt försvar. Däremot är det bara en dryg tredjedel av myndigheterna som själva anser att de är en del av det psykologiska försvaret.

Att s-regeringen 2018 har agerat i frågan beror till stor del på en växande kritik för overksamhet på område psykologiskt försvar i borgerliga tidningar och från borgerliga försvarsexperter. Sverige kommer nu enligt statsministern att få en myndighet för psykologiskt försvar, men det kommer att ta tid att bygga upp den eftersom verksamheten praktiskt taget legat nere i över ett årtionde.

Den svenska nedrustningsskandalen efter det kalla kriget är unik. Sverige har det senaste årtiondet haft ett försvar som är svagast i Europa. Mycket talar för att Ryssland håller på att återuppliva Operation Polarka. Det var en gång Sovjets plan mot Sverige (och Norge samt Danmark). Då avslöjade den avhoppade tjeckiske generalmajoren Jan Sejna från 1968 att Moskva var berett att sätta in 1,5 miljoner man mot Skandinavien. Sydsverige beräknades vara ockuperat efter tre dagar. Den behövliga ockupationsarmén för Sverige, Norge och Danmark uppskattades då till 90 000 sovjetsoldater.

Vid anfallet skulle med hänsyn till Sveriges stora territorium osedvanligt mycket fallskärmssoldater användas. Huvudargumentet för ockupationen var under det kalla kriget att Moskva ville ”värna om svensk alliansfrihet”. Generalmajor Sejna uppgav att ockupationen av Sverige skulle vara väl förberedd. Det fanns fler sovjetiska agenter i Sverige än i något annat land i Västeuropa i förhållande till befolkningen. I Sverige, Norge och Danmark fanns 60 sovjetiska huvudagenter. Var och en hade i sin tur ett nätverk av spioner och agenter under sig. Listor på svenskar som skulle arresteras, fängslas och likvideras fanns färdiga i Moskva.

Mer information om Operation Polarka finns i Bertil Häggmans skrift ”Operation Polarka (1974). Tidskriften Se publicerade under 1971 en serie artiklar om det sovjetiska hotet mot Sverige byggda på Sejnas avslöjanden. Här nedan ett citat:

”Upplysningar, som samlas in om industri och näringsliv, analyseras av KGB. Informationerna bidrar till att bestämma vilka mål som sabotagegrupper kan ge sig i kast med. Sådan mål är redan utsedda och kartotekförda i Kreml. Dessa spioner hjälper dessutom till att samla negativa informationer om betydande personer i ett land. Sådana upplysningar eller meritförteckningar skall användas för att oskadliggöra personer genom att förtala dem i deras eget land och på det sättet få dem ur spel. Jag vet att Kreml har tusen och åter tusen namn från Sverige, Norge och Danmark i sina listor. De täcker namn från alla näringsgrenar och hela det politiska livet, inklusive journalister och konstnärer. Under en ockupation av Skandinavien blir många av dessa människor ögonblickligen arresterade och avrättade. Ryska ”domstolar” har faktiskt redan utsetts för sådana uppdrag. De skall träda i kraft omedelbart efter det att länderna ockuperats. ”

Inför nya hot från Ryssland efter det kalla kriget har svenska politiker utan folkligt stöd nedrustat det svenska försvaret på de flesta områden. Utan NATO-medlemskap utsätter den socialdemokratiska regeringen Sverige för stora risker.

CHINA MOVING INTO FORMER ”TRIBUTARY TERRITORY” WITH MAJOR INVESTMENTS

January 11, 2018

Fox News on January 11, 2018 reported that Cambodia and China have signed nearly 20 agreements worth several billion dollars to develop the impoverished Southeast Asian country’s infrastructure, agriculture and health care. Excerpts below:

The agreements and memorandums of understanding were signed during a meeting between Cambodian Prime Minister Hun Sen and his Chinese counterpart, Li Keqiang.

Among the major agreements is building a new expressway more than 200 kilometers (125 miles) long linking the capital, Phnom Penh, with the coastal city of Sihanoukville,, and a new Phnom Penh international airport.

Cambodia was part of the tribute system was established during the Chinese Han dynasty. The first tributary missions arrived in China around the first century BC. Cambodia was a tributary state to China from 616 to 1863. Annam (part of Vietnam) sent tributary missions to China and in the case of Laos it was from 1400 to 1912. Burma and Thailand were also linked to China for centuries.

Comment: From the period 2010 to 2012 China has been increasingly assertive even aggressive in its relations with South-East Asian nation but in other areas as well.

China seems to believe that America’s role in the worldwide financial crisis as well as the costly military commitments in Iraq and Afghanistan have weakened the United States. The soft China policy of Washington DC from 2008 to 2016. The rising China has interpreted this as an indication of Western weakness.

It is important to introduce geopolitical thinking when studying the other Chinese flashpoint of the South China Sea. During the first decade of the 21st century a Greater China has emerged. China must be prevented from having too much influence in the Rimland according to Dutch-American geopolitician Nicholas Spykman (1893 – 1943). He was the founder of the Yale Institute of International Relations. The Rimland of Eurasia from Norway to the Bering Strait is of main importance in geopolitics according to Spykman The upheavals in the Greater Middle East since the beginning of the twentyfirst century and the growing tensions in South Asia and the Korean Peninsula is reason to watch China as both landpower and seapower.

THE ERULI – FROM DENMARK VIA UKRAINE AND SOME TO ICELAND

December 26, 2017

Stina Helmersson – Uno Roendahl, “Herulerna – Det bortglömda folket” [The Eruli – The Forgotten People], 2005, Epona Förlag, Villands Vånga, Sweden, 260 pages.

Introduction

A relatively recent publication of a book on the ancient Germanic people of the Eruli (Heruls) (Stina Helmersson – Uno Roendahl, “Herulerna – Det bortgloemda folket” [The Eruli – The Forgotten People], 2005, Epona Foerlag, Moellerydsvaegen 104, SE-290 38 Villands Vaanga, Sweden, 260 pages) is an event of great importance. It is the first complete book on the Eruli to be published in Sweden. This does not mean that there has been a lack of interest. There is an extensive academic material published in the 1900s. The Eruli are also well documented in classical literature.

There is some disagreement among scholars concerning the original homeland of this people. Denmark (more specifically Jutland or as the Romans called it the Cimbrian Peninsula). One of the questions is if the Eruli really were a people. Although the authors of the present book present numerous evidence of archaelogical finds that could be connected to the Eruli there can still be doubt. If a people is defined as an ethnical or geographical entity it is hard to place this people who appeared at so different places as Denmark, Ukraine and Iceland.

Was it in reality a ‘war guild’ (Kriegerverband) of mercenaries, a self defined warrior aristocracy connected to the designation of ancient Nordic title of earl? Thus the Eruli could in reality have a´sworn an oath to each other and to Odin directly. Then they could have taken up recruits from other Germanic peoples and grown in number (see for instance Haakon Stang, The Naming of Russia, Oslo 1996).

Of interest is also the question if the Eruli (if they were indeed a people) was a ‘Gothic people’ or something else. The Byzantines believed that peoples like the Gepids, Vandals and other Germanic peoples of the Era of Great Migration were Gothic peoples. The historian Prokopios in De bello Vandalico, III, ii, 2-5, iii, thought so:

“There were many Gothic nations in the past, just as today, yet greatest and most important are the Goths, Vandals, Visigoths, and Gepaedes…And there were some who called these nations Getic (note: in ancient times Goths and Getae were often confused). All these, while distinguished from one another by names, as stated, do not differ in anything else at all. For they have white bodies and fair hair, and are tall and handsome…they are all of Arian faith (note: as were most if not all Germanic peoples on the continent. One of the reasons for the quick downfall of Germanic states on the continent and in North Africa, was that they were detested and persecuted as heretics by the Roman church), and have only one language called Gothic; and it seems to me, they all came originally from one tribe…”

So what of the Eruli? There is one exception, wrote Zonaras:

After Valerianus, his son Gallienus was empowered of the Roman Empire, and having been left in the Occident while his father was fighting the Persians, in order that he resist those who planned ill against Italy and were ravaging Thrace. He with not more than 10,000 [men] vanquished 300,000 Alamans by Milan. Thereupon he crushed the Eruli, this people which is Scythian, and Gothic. He also made war against the Franks…

The Eruli in Ukraine and Russia

This reviewer is especially interested in the Eruli and Gothic campaigns in the Black Sea area, Asia Minor, and Greece in the years between 267 and 270 AD. It seems that the two peoples, the Goths living on the southern Ukrainian coast, operated together during these raids. The Goths traveled mostly overland, and the Eruli acted mainly as sea-raiders. Some of the ancient Greeks thought of the Eruli as just a maritime branch of the Goths. Unfortunately the new Swedish book deals only with these raids in a few lines. After all the Germanic raiders destroyed both Athens and Byzantium and there is still a wall in Athens designated the Erulian Wall, built of the ruins of the first destruction to secure against new attacks by the Eruli. They never came because both Goths and Eruli were defeated by Roman armies in the Balkans.

Important in this context is that most scholars believed the Eruli lived in southern Ukraine from around 250 AD during centuries. Their area was north and south of the Sea of Oziv. On the Ukrainian side it was the region around the cities of Melitopol, Berdyansk and Mariupol as well as Taganrog in Russia. Very little is known in the West on archaelogical research going on in that area if any. Is there any interest in Ukraine in the Eruli? How much is devoted to the Eruli and the Era of Great Migration in Ukrainian history books? Thus it would be of interest to create knowledge of the new Swedish book on the Eruli in Ukraine but also among Ukrainian scholars in the United States and Canada.

How the Eruli Came To Migrate To Iceland

One of the most positive aspects of the new book is the fact that Iceland is brought into focus by the authors. The Icelandic scholar Barthi Guthmundsson has for decades been almost forgotten. He was for many years chief of the Archival Museum connected to the National Museum of Reykjavik. He published an important book on the history of the Icelanders (Upprunni islendinga: published in the United States as The Origin of the Icelanders.) The original book was published shortly after Guthmundsson’s passing away in 1960. The general belief is that Iceland was settled by Norwegians but Guthmundsson has claimed that several Eruli families settled in Iceland. In his book he presents the influence of East Germanic culture in Iceland, which he believed came from the Eruli. A number of scholars in Scandinavia and elsewhere believe that the Eruli brought the runes to the north, as that people migrated widely. It is true that there are runic inscriptions in Scandinavia dated as far back as 200 AD but the greater number of inscriptions in Denmark, Norway and Sweden are from 700 AD and later. The Byzantian historians wrote about one part of the Eruli returning to Scandinavia in 512 AD, settling near the Gauti of Goetaland in southern Sweden, the Gauti believed to be the ancestors of the Goths.

As Helmersson-Roendahl note the theories of Guthmundsson have been presented in a new edition of the book Kuml og haugfé – ur heithnum sith á Islandi (2002). The book was originally authered by Kristján Eldjárn, who for a long time was Chief Archeologist in Iceland. In the new edition a number of leading archaelogists have participated. Five ship graves found on the island republic are all in areas where the Eruli families possibly settled.

Helmersson-Roendahl also bring up the important horse sacrifices and horse graves found in not only southern Scandinavia but also in Hungary and Slovakia. This cannot be a coincidence. Great influence on the East Germanic peoples have come from southern Ukraine and further east in Central Asia via the Huns. In Altai horse sacrifices existed as late as in the 1930s ! In an article in an academic Croatian migration journal I have pointed out, as does the authors of the new book, to the Vaetteryd iron age grave field in central Scania in southern Sweden where close by several horse skeletons and broken horse equipment has been found.

For those interested in ancient Germanic peoples this book is a treasure. There is evidence in classical literature (Prokopios), as mentioned above, that the Eruli returned to Scandinavia and settled either in the province of Blekinge or the part of Smaaland province that is called Vaerend. Helmersson-Roendahl present the unique runestones in Blekinge that connect to the Eruli but also finds of gold coins of Roman origin. The Eruli later came to Norway from where they possibly migrated to Iceland, so the authors of the new book. The Eruli were inventive and independent minded. Both men and women of their people brought culture, belief and traditions. The new book on the Eruli in Sweden belongs in libraries and homes not only in Scania but in Norway, Denmark, Sweden and Iceland and why not in Ukraine, Canada and the United States. It should be translated into English.

The author is not aware of the reception of the new book in Iceland. Maybe one could hope that the private institute Snorrastofa (in memory of Snorri Sturluson) might be interested in taking up the theories of Barthi Gudmundsson at some conference. For more on Snorrastofa see brochures “Snorrastofa – Cultural and Medieval Centre in Reykholt, Iceland” and Ecomuseum – Snorrastofa”.

THE ERULI (HERULI) AND BLEKINGE COUNTY IN SWEDEN – AROUND 200 AD TO CIRCA 600 AD

December 26, 2017

Jutland, Denmark, the Urheimat 

Around 200 AD the Dani drove out the Eruli from their original home in Jutland, the most likely Urheimat. The Norwegian linguist, Professor Sophus Bugge, in the early 20th century, held the view that the Danes, who originated from the Scandinavian peninsula, drove out the Eruli. There is in Jordanes ”Getica”, according to Bugge, no indication of from where the Eruli were exiled. Bugge thought that it could be reasonable to assume that they followed the Goths to southern Ukraine some time before the middle of the 3rd century AD.

Eruli ethnology

Greek historian Prokopios (Procopius, latin) in his “History of the Wars” wrote about the customs of the Eruli. He was very negative and as a Greek looked down on the Eruli:

In ancient times they used to appease their gods by human sacrifice. Old or sick people were supposed to seek death voluntarily. Relatives built a high pile of wood, whereupon the aging person climbed. Then another Erulian – not a relative – also climbed the pile, armed with a dagger, with which the victim was killed. This done the person climbed down from the pile, it was set on fire, and the burned remains were later buried. A self-respecting widow was, according to Prokopios, expected to commit suicide by hanging herself beside the tomb of her husband.

Present day Croatia

The Eruli, who migrated to the Danubian area and Illyricum in present day Croatia, also according to Prokopios, made themselves masters of the peoples around them including the Langobards. The Eruli also settled around the Sea of Azov at the Black Sea in present day Russia.

Eruli on the north coast of the Black Sea

Later Eruli fleets participated in the Seventh Gothic-Roman War (262 – 270 AD). In 267 – 268 Gothic and Eruli fleets crossed the Black Sea to the mouth of the river Danube and plundered Moesia (present day Romania). From there they continued to Byzantium, which was stormed by night. The fleets continued to plunder the Greek archipelago in spite of a Roman fleet attempting to stop them. Athens was stormed after a four week siege.

Athens, Greece

In 268 AD the Eruli took part in a Gothic attempt to defeat the Roman empire. Around 200,000 Goths with Eruli and other federates on 6,000 ships, according to probably exaggerated Roman sources, crossed the Bosporus and plundered the Greek archipelago, Crete, Cyprus and once more Athens was taken.

Western Eruli, the Rhine delta

Decades later (around 286 AD) Western Eruli, Rugi and Saxonians attacked Romans in the Rhine delta and Britannia. The attacks were successfully averted but historians have been puzzled about these attacks. West Eruli do not appear elswhere in the sources.

The first Erulian King Alarich was elected in 335 AD and 13 years later his Eruli were defeated by the Gothic army under King Ermanarich (Ermenrich, Joermunrekr).

Eruli conflict with the Langobards

Between 490 and 520 AD Eruli and Langobards battled each other. King Rhodoulphos (Rodulf) of the Eruli started a war against the Lombards. The Eruli lost a crucial battle (probably AD 494) in which the king was killed. Most Eruli fell but some managed to save themselves settling in Rugiland (present day Austria). The Rugians had by then left for Italy with the Goths.

Eruli in Rugiland

The Eruli did not stay long in Rugiland. Around 512 AD they settled “near the Gepids” in the Danubian region north of present day Beograd, Serbia. After some conflicts they were accepted by the Romans as federates, apparently on Roman soil, south of the Danube.

In Sweden: via Scania to Blekinge

Some time between 512 and 545 AD the Eruli, so Prokopios, returned to their ancestral home in Scandinavia ’at the very extremity of the world’. These men were led by many of royal blood and traversed many nations on their trek northwards. They passed the nations of the Dani, without suffering violence at the hands of them. Coming then to the ocean, they took to the sea, and put in at Thoule (Thule, a name for Scandinavia) and remained on that island (Greeks and Romans falsely believed Scandinavia was an island). Elsewhere Prokopios stated that the Eruli settled near the Goths (Gautoi) and some researchers believe it was was in the present southeastern Swedish province of Blekinge (from around 1000 until 1658 Danish territory).

Lacking a king the Eruli around 545 AD sent some of their nobles to Thoule to search out and bring back a suitable person of royal blood. When they reached the island, according to Prokopios, they found many of royal blood. They selected one man who pleased them most and set out with him on the return voyage. But this man fell sick and died when they had come to the country of the Danes. The men therefore returned a second time to Thoule and secured another man, whose name was Datios. He was followed by his brother Aordos and two hundred youths of the Eruli in Thoule.

Meanwhile the Eruli in Illyricum had, on the advice of the Roman Emperor Justinian, chosen another of royal blood as king, Souartouas. When the group of Eruli returned from Thoule with their candidate the people deserted Souartouas and choose Datios from Scandinavia as their king. Souartouas managed to flee to Constantinople and Emperor Justinian was furious and attempted to reinstate his candidate. The Eruli terminated as result their treaty with the Romans and joined in treaty with the Gepidi instead.

Some sources claim that the a part of the continental Eruli finally perished in battles with the East Roman Emperor.

It is believed, according to some sources, that the returning Eruli brought the runes, which were introduced by the Goths, when they were settled on the western side of the Black Sea. The title ’erilaR’, that can be found on a number of Iron Age runestones in Sweden and Norway, could be synonymous with ’Erul’, but also possibly ’priest’ or jarl (chieftain and the same word as the English ’earl’).

Nordic Peoples Migration Project 500 BC – AD 600

Bertil Haggman, “Eruli Influence in South Scandinavia: Migration and Remigration, journal Migrcijske teme, University of Zagreb, Croatia, 1999, pp. 215 – 227.

US MILITARY FORCES COULD LOOSE NEXT WAR . THREATS ARE POSED BY RUSSIA, CHINA, AND IRAN

December 15, 2017

Washington Times on December 13, 2017, published news on a new study by the Rand Corporation that says US forces are poorly structured. Excerpts below:

The study, “U.S. Military Capabilities and Forces for a Dangerous World,” presents the stark conclusion that the American military needs to reform its structure and war fighting plans to better deal with military challenges.

U.S. forces currently are larger than needed to fight a single major war and have failed to keep pace with military advances by major powers (note that would be the three emoires on the world island that are presently challenging the West: Russia, China, and Iran).

…Marine Corps Gen. Joseph Dunford, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff in a speech last month warned that American military advantages over China and Russia are eroding and said more investments are needed.

The Rand study recommended that instead of readying military forces to fight two regional wars in overlapping time frames, the military needs to shift the focus toward battling the five main adversaries today: China, Russia, North Korea, Iran and Islamic terrorist groups.

The scenarios call for a new force structure prepared to wage one major war against Russia or China; or forces ready to wage one major war and a regional conflict against North Korea or Iran. The third option is a force structure for two major wars, a buildup that requires larger numbers of combat brigades, fighter squadrons and warships.

The report states that the current approach to force planning and resource allocation by the Pentagon has “placed too little emphasis on modernizing the capabilities, posture, and operating concepts of U.S. forces for power projection.”

“The result — a force that is insufficiently robust to face the challenges posed by the most-capable adversaries — poses growing risks to the viability of the United States’ most-important security relationships.”Military reforms are needed to counter the growing power of America’s adversaries.

For example, to deal with China, the military needs to speed up development of faster, longer range air-to-surface and air-to-air missiles, more stocks of regional based cruise missiles; more electronic warfare gear, more stealth drones and satellites hardened from attacks along with space weapons such as missiles and jammers.
Many of those same weapons are needed to defeat Russia in a conflict as well as deploying three heavy combat brigades in the Baltic States and one in Poland.

To counter Iran, the report recommends improved mine countermeasures deployed in the region and greater close-in defenses for warships.

JERUSALEM – ISRAELS EVIGA HUVUDSTAD

December 13, 2017

Tidskriften Contra har i ett veckobrev i december 2017 publicerat en artikel om Jerusalem. Se nedan:

Jerusalem är Israels huvudstad. Officiellt sedan 1950. Det är bara att kolla i vilket referensverk som helst. Jerusalem är Israels huvudstad. Ändå envisas världens länder med att ha sina ambassader i Tel Aviv. De sista två ambassaderna i Jerusalem (Costa Rica och El Salvador) stängdes 2006.

Jerusalem Embassy Act lades fram som ett förslag i Kongressen av senatorn Bob Dole (som blev republikanernas presidentkandidat 1996, han förlorade mot Bill Clinton). Den 23 oktober 1995 röstade Kongressen om Jerusalem Embassy Act, som gick ut på att den amerikanska ambassaden skulle flyttas från Tel Aviv till Jerusalem. Förslaget vann med 374-37 i Representanthuset och med 93-5 i Senaten. Flytten skulle vara genomförd till 1999. Bill Clinton ansåg emellertid att lagen var ett ingrepp mot hans ”executive privilege”, det vill säga att Presidenten står för den verkställande makten. Både George W Bush och Barack Obama har hållit fast vid den ståndpunkten och har trots Kongressens beslut vägrat att flytta ambassaden. Den 5 juni 2017 antog Senaten en resolution som innehöll en hänvisning till Jerusalem Embassy Act. Resolutionen antogs med röstsiffrorna 90-0!

Trump hade som vallöfte att flytta ambassaden från Tel Aviv till Jerusalem.

Av europeiska länder har Tjeckien officiellt erkänt Jerusalem som Israels huvudstad, men låter det anstå att flytta ambassaden tills en förhandlingslösning nåtts på konflikten i området.

Sverige då? Vi utmärker oss som vanligt negativt. Sverige har som ett av mycket få länder ett generalkonsulat i Jerusalem. Men inte för att hålla kontakten med Israel utan med “palestinska myndigheten”. Det är sammanlagt bara tio länder som har konsulat eller generalkonsulat i Jerusalem.

ENFORCEMENT OF TAXES, JUDGEMENTS, DECISIONS AND ORDERS IN SWEDEN

December 13, 2017

1.1 The Enforcement Service (exekutionsväsendet)

The Enforcement Service is a state service. Historically it was paid for by local authorities. The local district was headed by a country bailiff (landsfiskal) in the rural areas and in the cities by a city bailiff (stadsfiskal). He was also district police commissioner and district prosecutor.

In 1965 police, public prosecution and enforcement administration were reorganized and the three services were taken over by the state and three separate authorities were introduced: the police administration, the public prosecutor administration and the enforcement administration. During the period 1965 – 1988 there were in all 81 districts of local enforcement authorities (kronofogdemyndigheter). Head of each authority was a chief enforcement officer. A reorganization in 1988 created 24 county enforcement administrations (länskronofogdemyndigheter) each headed by a county enforcement director (länskronodirektor), which is an administrative appointment. Already in 1997 the Enforcement Service was again reorganized and 10 regional enforcement authorities (regionkronofogdemyndigheter) were created each headed by a Regional Enforcement Director (regionkronodirektör). Later in 2006 a National Enforcement Administration, one single administration with a number of regional offices was created for all of Sweden.

There are mainly three categories of personnel in the Enforcement Administration. Enforcement officers (who have a law degree and experience of court service as assistant judges), enforcement personnel (responsible for the field operations of the authority) and office personnel.

Earlier a Department for Administration of the Enforcement Service was divided into two sections: Enforcement Law Section and Enforcement Administration Section.

The board’s main responsibility was however supervision of direct taxation and a number of other taxes.

It was also supervisory authority for such services as Civic Registration and Administration of General Elections. The department responsible for the Enforcement Administration was actually one of the minor roles of the board.

The total number of employees in the Enforcement Service countrywide is around 2,900.

1.2 Public and Private Claims

The Enforcement Administration is responsible for the collection of both public and private claims. Public claims (allmänna mål) are debts to central and local authorities (taxes, VAT, excise duties, social security contributions but also for instance television licenses and parking fines).

Private claims (enskilda mål) are based on judgements by general and administrative courts. But they also include titles based on Summary Procedure of the Enforcement Administration, repossessions and evictions ordinarily based on summary decisions.

The enforcement cases (utsökningsmålen) are based on public claims of several kinds as noted above. The handling of enforcement cases differ. They can mainly be divided into two categories: the first category is claims in which the Regional Enforcement Authority can apply for bankruptcy and decide on its own to stop enforcement procedures.

Concerning for instance foreign taxes the Enforcement Authority does not have that right. are accounted for to the applicant authority when collection is completed. Limitation in the enforcement cases is generally five years from the end of the year the tax originally had to be paid).

1.3 Enforceable judgements, decisions and orders

Enforcement claims in private cases are, as mentioned above, mainly based on court judgements and titles. Judgements of the general courts: the District Court (tingsrätten), the Court of Appeal (hovrätten) and the Supreme Court (Högsta Domstolen) and the Administrative Court (länsrätt, now förvaltningsdomstol), the Administrative Court of Appeal (kammarrätt) and the Administrative Supreme Court (Regeringsrätten, nu Högsta Förvaltningsdomstolen) can all be enforced.

Some private documents can also be enforced as for instance contracts for child and spousal support. The general rules on the enforceable titles can be found in Chapter 4 of the Enforcement Code. For more on codes, acts and statutes see section 4.4 below) but the title or judgement must be legally binding. An important exception to this general rule is that all titles and judgments involving an obligation to pay can be enforced without being legally valid. Default judgements can also be enforced in the same way as injunctions to pay.

Chapter 4 Section 1 contains a more detailed account of rules on the enforcement of various judgements and titles.