Archive for May, 2016

MOVIE REVIEW – 13 HOURS: THE SECRET SOLDIERS OF BENGHAZI

May 31, 2016

The gripping true story 13 HOURS: THE SECRET SOLDIERS OF BENGHAZI was honored as the closing night film at this year’s GI Film Festival in Washington, D.C. on Sunday, May 29th. It is a must for all interested in the Libyan controversy in the American election campaign of 2016. One can only hope for a swift distribution of the movie in Europe.

Three of the real-life heroes upon whose story the film is based-John “Tig” Tiegen, Mark “Oz” Geist and Kris “Tanto” Paronto-attended the red carpet screening, along with one of the stars of the film, actor Dominic Fumusa (“Nurse Jackie”).

13 HOURS: THE SECRET SOLDIERS OF BENGHAZI tells the incredible true story of six elite ex-military operators who saved the lives of more than 25 Americans against overwhelming odds at a U.S. diplomatic compound in Libya.

Directed by Michael Bay, the film stars John Krasinski (TV’s “The Office”), James Badge Dale (World War Z), Dominic Fumusa (TV’s “Nurse Jackie”) and Pablo Schreiber (TV’s “Orange is the New Black”).

The movie is based on the book “13 Hours: The Inside Account of What Really Happened in Benghazi” by New York Times best-selling author Mitchell Zuckoff with the members of the Annex Security Team.

13 HOURS: THE SECRET SOLDIERS OF BENGHAZI is available now on Digital HD and arrives on Blu-ray, DVD and On Demand on June 7th in the United States.

Described as “Sundance for the Troops,” the GI Film Festivalpreserves the stories of veterans through film, television, training and special events.

For more information go to http://www.thirteenhoursmovie.com

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VÄSTERLANDETS SJÄLVMORD?

May 29, 2016

År 2011 var det 40 år sedan Bertil Häggman och Claes G Ryn utkom med boken Nykonservatismen i USA (1971). Den väckt en ofta upprörd debatt. Författarna beskrev den amerikanska konservatismens rötter och och senaste gestalt med början under 1950-talet. På vänstersidan var det stor upprördhet och i det borgerliga lägret noterade man med intresse den begynnande högervinden i Förenta Staterna.

Det kanske viktigaste kapitlet i boken var Bertil Häggmans ”Kritiken mot liberalismen: James Burnham”. År 2007 tog författaren och juristen Häggman upp Västerlandets självmord i en artikel publicerad i Captus Tidning. Den bok som hade gjort Burnham berömd var Direktörernas revolution (på svenska 1947). Här försökte den amerikanske professorn analysera vad som skulle hända efter andra världskriget. Om det nazistiska Tyskland segrade skulle världen domineras av tre stora imperier. Under det Kalla kriget kom en serie om tre böcker som krävde befrielse från kommunismen i stället för containment: Kampen om världen (finns på svenska), Kommunismens kommande nederlag (finns på svenska) och till sist Containment or Liberation, som aldrig översattes till svenska.

Vad var det som gjorde boken Västerlandets självmord så betydelsefull, särskilt för bedömningen av den nuvarande västerländska krisen? Burnham drog år 1964 slutsatsen att om världens utveckling fortsatte efter den som modell som skapats av socialdemokratin i Europa och vänstern i USA skulle det leda till förfall och Västs slutliga kollaps. När Sovjetunionen rasade samman år 1991 kunde det tyckas som om hotet hade minskat. Men åtminstone inom media och kommunikation fortsatte vänstern att dominera och från och till lyckades socialdemokraterna i Europa ta makten. De åtta åren med Obama-administrationen i USA har lett till inre motsättningar i USA. Årets val i Förenta Staterna återspeglar Västerlandets kris.

Bertil Häggman skrev 1971 om Burnham i Nykonservatismen i USA att denne ville förstå vänstern i dess konkreta, nuvarande form som en motreaktion mot ”fienden till höger”. Utan denna fiende skulle någon vänster inte existera.

Det fortsatta studiet av Burnham är oundgängligt. Hans varningar är särskilt värda att uppmärksammas när tillväxten i Europa upphört, befolkningsminskningen accelererar och tre anti-västliga imperier, bland dem Kina, kontinuerligt flyttar fram sina positioner.

GUSTAF LILLIECRONA – THE FIRST SWEDISH AMBASSADOR TO DENMARK TO RESIDE IN COPENHAGEN

May 28, 2016

Introduction

For several centuries Russia and Lithuania fought for the lands of Kyivan Rus (ancient Ukraine). In 1648 Ukrainian Kozaks started an uprising against Polish supremacy. The Kozak leader was Bohdan Khmelnytsky. In the liberated areas a regimental structure was established in the new Ukrainian state. Elected managerial and court bodies were introduced.

Khmelnytsky sought help from outside to defeat the Polish-Lithuanian state. He negotiated both with Sweden and Russia. An agreement was signed in 1654 with Muscovy. During the following war 1654 to 1667 between Russia and Poland a Swedish-Ukrainian Treaty at Korsun on October 6, 1657 was signed.

The Treaty of Korsun 1657

The treaty was the result of years of negotiations and contacts between Sweden and Ukraine. It provided for a Swedish-Ukrainian military and political alliance to guarantee the independence and territorial integrity of Ukraine. Charles X Gustavus pledged to obtain recognition by Poland of the Ukrainian Hetmanate. This state was to territorially include western Ukrainian lands as well as the Berestia (Brest) and Polatsk palatinates, then controlled by Poland-Lithuania.

The Men Behind the Treaty

The terms of the treaty were worked out by the Kozak leaders Ivan Kovalevsky, Ivan Bohun, and Yurii Nemyrych on the Ukrainian side and Ambassador Gustaf Lilliecrona on the Swedish side.

Gustaf Lilliecrona (1623 – 1687) was a Swedish civil servant, several times provincial governor and diplomat. In April 1657 he was appointed to serve as Swedish commissar to the Kozak leader Khmelnytsky. He remained in Ukraine from April to August of 1657. Liliecrona later served as Swedish ambassador to Ukraine. He was first to reside in the Danish capital. Earlier Swedish ambassadors had resided in Elsinore. As far as I have found there is no detailed history of the Swedish ambassadors in Elsinore. Such a history should be written as part of the history of the city of Elsinore, one of Denmark’s cities rich in history.

The implementation of the Swedish-Ukrainian Treaty was prevented by the war between Sweden and Denmark. King Charles X Gustavus had to transfer his troops from Poland to Denmark. A year later Khmelnytsky’s successor as Hetman, Ivan Vyhovsky, signed the treaty of Haidach (1658) with Poland.

Conclusion

“The Ukrainian hope of finding a protector in Sweden had to be given up although Sweden and Ukraine in fact signed a formal treaty at Korsun in Ukraine on October 6, 1657. It was the first treaty of its kind and was to be followed by more such treaties by this time signed on behalf of the grandson of Charles X Gustavus, Charles XII”.

The quote is from my book on Swedish-Ukrainian relations in the 17th century. A detailed study of the three historical Swedish-Ukrainian treaties is still lacking.

Sources

Bertil Haggman, Swedish-Ukrainian Relations, Circa 1600 – 1657 (printed as manuscript), 2007.

Biography of Gustaf Lilliecrona, Svenskt Biografisk Lexikon.

Z.E. Kohut, B.Y. Nebesio, M. Yurkevich, Historical Dictionary of Ukraine, 2005.

Riksarkivet, Stockholm /2113/2113.2 Diplomatica Muscovitica Cosacica. Vol. 1. Förhandlingar mellan Sverige och kosackerna 1655 – 1719 (Negotiations between Sweden and the Kozaks 1655 – 1719).

COMMITTEE FOR A FREE ASIA (KOMMITTÈN FÖR ETT FRITT ASIEN) – DEFENDING FREEDOM IN VIETNAM 1965 TO 1975

May 27, 2016

As in the United States the Vietnam War coincided with the rise of the so called New Left in Sweden and extreme leftist ideas were an important theme in the pro-Hanoi activities in the Swedish context as well.

The pro-Hanoi street demonstrations in Europe evolved into a violent terrorist struggle from which a number of terrorist organizations emerged like the Baader-Meinhof Gang (Rote Armee Fraktion) in West Germany and similar terrorist groups in France, England, and Italy.

Sweden was (and is) a special case. At the beginning of the increased American military and civilian support for South Vietnam the government in Stockholm was led by moderate social democrats. After Olof Palme took over as prime minister,an ”anti-imperialist” and anti-American course became even more radical. The Swedish government willingly provided the regimes in Tanzania, Zimbabwe, Angola, Mozambique, Guinea-Bissau, Ethiopia, Somalia and not least North Vietnam with extensive aid, although these regimes were communist or pro-Soviet.

The radical revolutionary rhetoric, demonstrations and left-wing action was a real threat to democracy in Europe, including the huge and violent demonstrations in France in 1968.

Personally I left the University of Lund in southern Sweden with a Master of Law-degree in 1965 to start my legal career. As I had been involved in campus politics at the University of Lund I simply continued into the counter-leftist scene in Sweden’s capital of Stockholm. There has always been a strong undercurrent of conservatism in the capital. It was possible, with original help from anticommunist Estonian and Latvian exile groups, which were already strongly organized, to set up the Committee for a Free Asia (with several local committees) in 1965 in support of the South Vietnamese government and American aid to that government.

Flyers, leaflets and other printed material plus campaign buttons were produced. Buttons and material were distributed on the streets of Stockholm mainly on Saturdays during shopping hours and in connection with leftist pro-Hanoi demonstrations.

I was invited to appear on radio and TV and took part in numerous debates with left-wingers on the wars in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia.

After a couple of years the controversy became more heated. By summer 1967 a Scandinavian delegation was organized to visit South Vietnam consisting of Danes, Norwegians and Swedes with me as delegation chief. We met with Chief of State Nguyen Van Thieu, administration officials and travelled around South Vietnam between the Mekong delta and Hue. Later I made two trips to Vietnam in 1969 and in 1971 plus visits to Thailand and the Republic of China.

In Sweden the government had diplomatically recognised the Hanoi regime and had no diplomatic ties with Saigon. An information bureau was set up in Stockholm by the Republic of Vietnam organized by The Vietnam Council on Foreign Affairs, P.O. Box 932, Saigon (President of the council was Honorable Tran Van Lam, foreign minister of the Republic of Vietnam), which greatly aided our work. Meanwhile the pro-Hanoi movement grew in Sweden. Naturally all embassies of the Soviet bloc in Stockholm were involved in aiding Hanoi. The Swedish Prime Minister Olof Palme demonstrated with the North Vietnamese ambassador on the streets of Stockholm and made verbal attacks on the United States comparing it with Hitler’s Germany. In the beginning of the 1970s leftist organizations to support Hanoi and the insurgents in South Vietnam, the latter being controlled by the North Vietnamese regime.

 

An excerpt from the political memoirs of Swedish author Bertil Haggman (“Swedish Center-Right Anticommunism 1963 – 1991- Notes by a Participant”, Kindle Direct Publishing, 2015).

THE CHINESE EMPIRE UNDER THE LEGALISTS

May 26, 2016

Strictly speaking China is currently governed by a hybrid of entrepreneurial capitalism and rigid central control, in other words, the world’s largest fascist state with ruling principles and aspirations grounded in Legalist thought. The Chinese are, as in history, obsessed by the maintenance of internal order.

The Chinese idea of a logical moral order is the advancement of Chinese power.

With the present aggressive policies of China the short-term challenge for the West would be to recognize the sources of Chinese thinking about the world, and design policies for dealing with Beijing that comprehend China’s unique worldview.

Several Western experts have in recent years pointed out that European nineteenth century strategist Carl von Clausewitz is outdated. Ralph Peters in Armed Forces Journal (2006) headlined his article “Why Clausewitz had it backward”. In the West Sun Tzu is incorrectly often regarded as a pacifist, who want to win war without bloodshed. This is profoundly wrong. In the passage concerning this method Sun Tzu’s primary emphasis is not on avoiding battle.

In his lengthy article in Hoover Institution’s Policy Review in 2003 also Tony Corn (“Clausewitz in Wonderland”) regarded von Clausewitz as outdated. Already in 1999 the reasons for not using Clausewitz should have become apparent even to Clausewitzians.

The revolution today is not in conventional warfare but in irregular warfare (of which one part is so called netwar or cyberwar). The German nineteenth century strategist saw irregular warfare as merely a “support activity” of conventional warfare. Thus Sun Tzu has much more to say on strategy in irregular warfare, the dominant form of warfare in the twentyfirst century, than Clausewitz.

In 2005 Major General Zu Chenghu threatened to nuke “hundreds” of American cities if the United States dared to interfere with a Chinese attempt to conquer the Republic of China (Taiwan). In 1998 an official People’s Liberation Army publishing house brought out a book on “unrestricted warfare” by two Chinese colonels. They argued in the work that it would be impossible to defeat the West with conventional warfare. Instead financial warfare, drug warfare, psychological and media warfare, international law warfare, resource warfare and ecological warfare should be used.

To understand China it is not enough to study Confucius. It is necessary also to study Sun Tzu but also the Legalist thinker Lord Shang. Mao’s teachings are influence more by Lord Shang than by Sun Tzu.

GILJOTINEN, GULAG, OCH GASKAMMAREN

May 25, 2016

Den franska revolution, som inleddes 1789, producerade slagordet ”frihet, jämlikhet, broderskap”. I namn av ett framtida broderskap skulle man likvidera revolutionens motståndare i deras egenskap av djävulsfigurer.

Den franska regeringens ståndpunkt under revolutionen under slutet av 1700-talet var att den inte hade någon annan skyldighet i förhållande till sina fiender än att döda dem.

Den nådeslösa paradoxen 1789 till 1794 och fortsättningen under den ryska revolutionen 1917 var att fienden skulle besegras (häri ingick även tanken på utrotning) i ett globalt inbördeskrig. Sluttillståndet skulle vara en övergripande utformning av mänskligheten. Målet var universellt och totalt. Allas jämlikhet och broderskap skulle skapas först med giljotin och senare med gulag och nackskott. Den som ställde sig i vägen för utopin i ett framtida revolutionärt broderskapssamhälle utsatte sig för hat. I det framtida utopiska samhället skulle humanitära begrepp få en starkt diskriminerande potential.

1920 skrev den franske historikern Mathiez: “De ryska revolutionärerna härmade villigt och medvetet de franska. De besjälades av samma anda.”

Revolten i västra Frankrike mot revolutionsregimen i Paris ledde till kanske mellan 100,000 och 200,000 offer. Den franske forskaren Pierre Chaunu har funnit att det rörde sig om ett folkmord och att det var proportionellt mer effektivt än förintelsen. General Westermann, en av ledarna för antigerrillatrupperna, rapporterade till konventet i Paris: “Jag har trampat barnen under hästhovarna. Jag har massakrerat kvinnorna, så att de inte kommer att föda fler rebeller.”

Vad ligger till exempel i den franske revolutionären Robespierres uttalande att revolutionen är en övergång från förbrytelsens härskande till rättvisans herradöme? En annan fransk revolutionär, Saint Just, konstaterade att revolutionen var en övergång från det onda till det goda. Motståndarna blev därmed värda att utrota som förbrytare och människofiender.

Man skulle kunna hävda att det går en linje från de franska jakobinernas massakrer under franska revolutionen, den första moderna välorganiserade statsterrorn, till Gulag och Auschwitz.

Den historiska linjen Frankrike, Sovjetunionen och Hitlertyskland än en historisk linje, rationalism och förnuft drivna till sin yttersta konsekvens. Frågan är om det i våra dagar finns ytterligare en ny länk i denna kedja av misslyckade samhällsexperiment: den islamism som upprättat en våldstat i Syrien och Irak. Här rör det sig dock inte om en urspårad västerländsk utopi utan om en felaktig förhoppning att man i vår tid kan upprepa de arabiska erövringarna kring Medelhavet för många århundraden sedan.

THE CULTURE OF THE PARTISAN IN THE SOUTH

May 24, 2016

Partisan warfare is over two thousand years old. Mythification of the partisan in Western civilization started in the 19th century in Germany with works such as Die Hermannsschlacht (a theatrical play1808-09; not published until 1821), when Germanic forces defeated Roman legions in the Teutoburger Forest in 9 AD. The Germanic forces were led by Arminius. During the Napoleonic wars the author, Heinrich von Kleist, was encouraging a resistance against emperor Napoleon of France across Europe. Guerrilla warfare already raged in Spain and in parts of Europe. Now, with Napoleon’s armies in Berlin von Kleist wanted to encourage a German resistance. Another early writing on the type of the partisan occurred first in Scotland and then in the American South.

The culture of the partisan and guerrilla was widespread in the South before the war between the South and the North. In the nineteenth century the South had a growing culture and admiration for the partisan warrior, a heritage from the American Revolution (see such Southern periodicals as Southern Literary Messenger, Southern Quarterly Review and DeBow’s Review).

Sir Walter Scott’s Rob Roy (which is based on Rob Roy MacGregor Campbell, who led a Scottish uprising against the English in 1715) was one ideal partisan figure.

Another important author Beverly Tucker of Virginia published many novels on partisan fighters including The Partisan Leader (1836).

Famed South Carolina author William Gilmore Simms was also influential. He wrote a series of seven novels beginning with The Partisan in 1835, which glorified the Southern guerrillas of the American Revolution (note the Hollywood film “Patriot” which was loosely based on Francis Marion, the South Carolina revolutionary leader).

Finally a few words of Professor James A. Ramage in his Rebel Raider – The Life of General John Hunt Morgan (1986):

Partisan warfare was a formidable strategic instrument, opening a hundred second fronts in the enemy rear, frustrating and wearing down the invaders, nullifying the advantages of superior manpower and resources in the North, and striking at the mind and will of Northern voters. Guerrillas could have paralyzed Union logistics, and many local successes could have changed the relative strength of the opposing forces. A lengthy guerrilla war might have resulted in a long drawn out struggle and maybe victory.

Instead of using the partisan strength of among others Southern sharpshooters, of whom many were woodsmen grown up with hunting and guns, almost all military force of the Confederacy was concentrated on winning large battles. The purpose was to achieve a final strike against the North in traditional Napoleonic style. This gave the North the advantage of larger numbers and overwhelming production base.

Confederate Guerrilla Poetry – The Case for Irregular War to Defend the South 1861 – 1865

Poetry, songs and music were an integral part of the great struggle between the South and the North 1861 – 1865. It is only natural that Confederate guerrillas, partisan rangers and raiders were treated in some of the war songs and poems of the time. The guerrilla, the ranger and the raider were of a mystical – yes, almost mythical – nature and the struggle against often overwhelming odds were admired by friend and foe alike.

The main theatres of guerrilla and partisan warfare were Missouri and Virginia but also Alabama, Arkansas, Kentucky, North Carolina and Tennessee saw bitter and often brutal warfare of this kind. Many a man also took the opportunity to settle old scores under cover of the conflict.

POETS

SIMMS, WILLIAM GILMORE (1806-1870).

Novelist, etc., b. at Charleston, South Carolina, began his literary life with journalism. He then for some time tried poetry, but without any distinct success except occasionally in Southern Passages and Pictures(1839). But in fiction, which he began in 1833 with Martin Faber, he was more successful. The Yemassee (1835) is generally considered his best novel. He was less happy in his attempts at historical romance, such as Count Julian and The Damsel of Darien. During the war, in which he was naturally a strong partisan of the South, he was ruined, and his library was burned; from these disasters he never really recovered. He had a high repute as a journalist, orator, and lecturer. Simms was one of the first Southerners to achieve a great name in literature.

HAYNE, PAUL HAMILTON (1830-1886). —Poet, b. at Charleston, S. Carolina, of an old family, contributed to various magazines, and published Poems (1885), containing “Legends and Lyrics.” His graceful verses show the influence of Keats. His sonnets are some of his best work.

SEVERN TEACKLE WALLIS . (1816–1894) was an American lawyer.

Severn Wallis graduated from St. Mary’s College, Baltimore, in 1832, studied law with William Wirt, attorney general, and with John Glenn. In 1837 Wallis was admitted to the bar.

Wallis early developed a taste for literature and contributed to periodicals many articles of literary and historical criticism, also occasional verses. He became a proficient in Spanish literature and history and was elected a corresponding member of the Royal Academy of history of Madrid in 1843. In 1846 he was chosen a fellow of the Royal Society of northern antiquaries of Copenhagen.

In 1847 he visited Spain and in 1849 the U. S. government sent him on a special mission to that country to examine the title to the public lands in east Florida, as affected by royal grants during the negotiations for the treaty of 1819.

From 1859 until 1861 Wallis was a contributor to the editorial columns of the Baltimore Exchange, and also for other journals.

Wallis in 1861 was chairman of the committee on Federal relations in Maryland. In September of that year Wallis was arrested with many members of the legislature and other citizens of the state, and imprisoned for more than fourteen months in various forts. He was released in November, 1862, without conditions.

He then returned to the practice of the law in Baltimore.

A statue of him stands in Mount Vernon Square in Baltimore, Maryland.

ENFORCEMENT SERVICE IN SWEDEN – ENFORCING HIGH TAXES – AN OVERVIEW

May 19, 2016

Introduction

This overview aims at introducing the Swedish Enforcement Service and the enforcement legislation. Sweden is a high-tax country. Common is 25 percent VAT with some variety. During the center-right government between 2006 to 2014 personal taxes were reduced. Denmark has today (2016) the highest taxation in the world.

Since the beginning of seventeenth century Sweden has been known for an effective state administration. Axel Oxenstierna was the father of the establishment of a new administrative system. The extensive reforms of the 1610s and 1620s modernized the country. Among the areas reformed were the army and navy, trade and industry regulation, regional and local administrative practices, the higher education, and above all the judicial system, including enforcement of judgments.

The enforcement system has been reorganized many times but is still based on the Oxenstierna reforms.

It is complicated to present the Enforcement Administration in one country in another language because of the terminology. I have chosen to mainly use the British terminology. Any errors are completely my own.

Below are excerpts from a longer essay to be published in 2017.

1. Enforcement

1.1 The Enforcement Service (exekutionsväsendet)

The Enforcement Service is a state service. Historically it was paid for by local authorities. The local district was headed by a country bailiff (landsfiskal) in the rural areas and in the cities by a city bailiff (stadsfiskal). He was also district police commissioner and district prosecutor.

In 1965 police, public prosecution and enforcement administration were reorganized and the three services were taken over by the state and three separate authorities were introduced: the police administration, the public prosecutor administration and the enforcement administration. During the period 1965 – 1988 there were in all 81 districts of local enforcement authorities (kronofogdemyndigheter). Head of each authority was a chief enforcement officer. A reorganization in 1988 created 24 province (län) enforcement administrations (länskronofogdemyndigheter) each headed by a county enforcement director (länskronodirektör), which is an administrative appointment. Already in 1997 the Enforcement Service was again reorganized and 10 regional enforcement authorities (regionkronofogdemyndigheter) were created each headed by a Regional Enforcement Director (regionkronodirektör). Later in 2006 a National Enforcement Administration, one single administration with a number of regional offices was created for all of Sweden.

There are mainly three categories of personnel in the Enforcement Administration. Enforcement officers (who have a law degree and experience of court service as assistant judges), enforcement personnel (responsible for the field operations of the authority) and office personnel.

Earlier a Department for Administration of the Enforcement Service was divided into two sections: Enforcement Law Section and Enforcement Administration Section. Itwas part of the National Tax Board. The board’s main responsibility was however supervision of direct taxation and a number of other taxes.

It was also supervisory authority for such services as Civic Registration and Administration of General Elections. The department responsible for the Enforcement Administration was actually one of the minor roles of the board.

The total number of employees in the Swedish Enforcement Service countrywide is around 2,900.

ON MAJOR GENERAL SAMUEL COCKBURN (COBRON) (B. CA 1574, D. DEC 1621), SCOTTISH MERCENARY IN SWEDISH SERVICE

May 19, 2016

The pay-lists of the Swedish foreign mercenaries during the seventeenth century are orderly and detailed mostly by German scribes. German immigrants were the backbone of Swedish bureaucracy at the time. They had started arriving in the sixteenth century and are one of the reasons that Swedish administrative procedures are working well to this day. While Germany provided much manpower the French provided most of the cash for Sweden’s wars on the continent of Europe in the religious Thirty Years’ War (1618 – 1648).

One source tells us that Cobron’s Regiment in 1615 had 7 companies

Capt. Hans Stifert’s (Stuart)
Capt. Donoway’s
Capt. Hay
Patr. Ruthven
Ramsay
Gern
Wallace

An early source is The Scots in Sweden (1907) by Thomas Alfred Fischer. Much literature has been added since that on the subject of mercenaries including a 3 volume work by Swedish author Bertil Haggman (The Multinational Swedish Army, 2009, 2010 and 2011). The mercenary force included English, Germans, Swiss, Saxons, Poles and a host of other nations with the backbone of the army being Swedes and Finns.

For a mercenary army like the Swedish payment on time was crucial. No pay meant desertion and problems with discipline.

Major General Cobron is buried in Turku cathedral, Finland.

PIETISM I SYDÖSTRA SVERIGE – KRISTIANSTAD OCH KARLSKRONA

May 17, 2016

Inledning

Den pietistiska rörelsen har sitt säte i staden Halle an der Saale söder om Berlin (Franckestiftelserna). Den grundades av den snillrike August Hermann Francke.

De svenska krigsfångarna efter slaget vid Poltava 1709, som hamnade i västra Sibirien, förde pietismen till Sverige. Där mötte den dock motstånd från Svenska kyrkan. Pietismen kom att påverka fromhetslivet i Skåne och Göinge under slutet av 1700-talet och början av 1800-talet. På prästgården i Allerum i nordvästra Skåne verkade prästen Johan Sundius, som fick stöd av ägaren till Kulla Gunnarstorps slott, hovjunkaren Diederic Christian Conov.

Under Stora nordiska kriget började pietsimen också utbreda sig till Kristianstad och Karlskrona.

Kristianstad

Provinsialläkaren Sigfrid Leopold (1640 – 1722) blev anfader till en i Sverige berömd släkt. Det har varit en hel del tveksamhet om var han föddes men det torde numera vara tämligen klart att han var född i staden Spremberg i dåvarande kurfurstendömet Brandenburg. Han gifte sig med dottern ( Helena Broome (1655 – 1725) till en invandrad engelsk vetenskapsman (Tomas Broome, ursprungligen väl Broom) vars släkt senare också blev framstående inom svensk vetenskap. Han var den förste ägaren till Snäckestads gård i Vånga och verksam vid de skånska saltpeterssjuderierna. I samband med giftet flyttade Leopold, troligen utbildad vid universitetet i Frankfurt an der Oder, som i dag ligger alldeles vid tysk-polska gränsen, in på Snäckestads gård.

Giftet blev barnrikt. En av sönerna följde i faderns fotspår och blev läkare. Owe Leopold tjänstgjorde bland annat som frivillig läkare i den av pesten starkt drabbade universitetsstaden Lund. Sjukdomen härjade svårt i Skåne i början av 1700-talet.

Pappa Leopold var pietist och som huslärare till barnen anställde han studenten Adam Schröder (sedermera biskop i Kalmar). Schröder var konservativ pietist och han påverkade starkt en annan son till doktor Leopold, Thomas Leopold (1693 – 1771). Den sonen blev emellertid radikalpietist. Det innebär att han förordade att bibeln skulle få läsas i hemmen och att vanliga människor borde få samlas till bönemöten utan medverkan av någon präst i svenska kyrkan. För detta fängslades han och tillbringade flera årtionden i fängelse. Den sista tiden förvarades han under svåra förhållanden på ett av Sveriges mest beryktade fängelser, Bohus fästning, där han också avled.

En son till provinsialläkaren blev tullförvaltare. Denne fick i sin tur bland annat sonen Carl Gustaf Leopold (1756 – 1829), som senare adlades under namnet af Leopold. Med tiden blev han medlem av Svenska Akademien och en av Kung Gustav III:s favoritskalder.

Avslutningsvis bör nämnas att Sigfrid Leopold också hade anknytning till Blekinge. Han var under en tid husläkare hos greven och amiralen Hans Wachtmeister i Karlskrona. Den blekingska huvudstaden var under den tidiga pietismen ett betydelsefullt centrum.

Om Thomas Leopold finns omfattande information på nätet och i artikeln ”Litteratörer och läkare, guldmakare och kättare från Snäckestad – anteckningar om släkten Leopold i Vånga på 1700-talet” (Handlingar ang. Villands härad, 1993) av Mats Pettersson kan man fördjupa sig i en mängd intressanta detaljer om släkten Leopold.

Karlskrona

De första pietisterna i örlogsstaden Karlskrona, grundad 1680, kom från Tyskland i början av 1700-talet.

Stadens centrum är nu ett UNESCO-världsarv och en av Europas bäst bevarade äldre örlogsstäder. Där fanns också en tysk församling med egen kyrka ritad av en av Sveriges främsta arkitekter på den tiden.

Under det Stora nordiska kriget kom huslärare från Halle. Först kom magistern Johann Werner Pause och Johann Schade (inte att förväxlas med Johann Kasper Schade, som avled 1698 i Berlin. Schade besökte familjer i staden och läste, sjöng och bad. En våg av pietism spred sig bland stadens köpmans- och hantverkarfamiljer.

Verksamheten blev dock kortvarig. Pastorn vid Tyska församlingen, Julius J. Kristoffer Hauswolff var en nitisk försvarare av luthersk ortodoxi. Han lyckades snabbt få de bägge pietistiska lärarna från Halle utvisade från Sverige.

Redan 1703 kom nästa huslärare från Halle, Kristofer Ernst Scultetus till Karlskrona. Hans arbetsgivare var den förmögne köpmannen Claus Saur. År 1705 anlände magister Johann Hübener, som enligt Hauswolff var en ”ärkepietist”.

En fältskär vid amiralitetet torde ha varit den förste pietisten i Karlskrona. Enligt Amiralitetskonistoriets protokoll förhördes han som misstänkt för att ha läst tysk pietistisk uppbyggelseliteratur. Starck kom undan med en varning.

Slutsatser

Svenska Kyrkans forskning om pietismen är koncentrerad till Stockholmsområdet. Även Dalarna och Norrland har något litet uppmärksammats. Sydöstra Sverige har dock av någon anledning lämnats utanför. Denna korta essä är därför ett försök att visa på vikten av upplysning om den pietistiska verksamheten i Sveriges två sydligaste landskap.